7. Ecuador (1905-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (January 1, 1905-July 8, 1925): President Leonidas Plaza Gutierrez of the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal – PL) was succeeded by Lizardo Garcia of the Conservative Party (CP) in 1905.  President Garcia was overthrown by General Eloy Alfaro of the PL in 1906.  A new constitution went into effect on December 23, 1906.  President Alfaro resigned on August 11, 1911, and President-elect Emilio Estrada established a provisional government on August 12, 1911.  President Estrada died of a heart attack on December 22, 1911. General Alfaro attempted to seize control of the government beginning on December 28, 1911, but he was captured by government troops on January 14, 1912.  General Alfaro was imprisoned by the government, but he was killed by a mob on January 28, 1912.  General Leonidas Plaza Gutierrez was elected president in 1912, and he was inaugurated as president on August 31, 1912.  Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno of the PL was elected president in 1916, and he was inaugurated as president on August 31, 1916. Jose Luis Tamayo of the PL was elected president in 1920.  Several individuals were killed during riots in Guayaquil in 1922 and 1923.

Crisis Phase (July 9, 1925-June 4, 1944):  President Gonzalo Cordova was deposed in a military rebellion led by General Francisco Gomez de la Torre on July 9, 1925.  The US imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government of General Torre on July 10, 1925.  Isidro Ayora was appointed as provisional president in April 1926.  The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Ayora on August 13, 1928.  The Constituent Assembly elected Isidor Ayora as president, and a new constitution went into effect on March 28, 1929.  President Ayora resigned on August 25, 1931, and Colonel Luis Alba was appointed as provisional president. President Alba resigned in October 1931.  Government troops suppressed rebellions in Quito in April and August 1932, resulting in the deaths of more than 1,000 individuals.  Martinez Mera was elected president in August 1932, but he was impeached by Congress in 1933.  Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra of the CP was elected president in December 1933.  President Velasco Ibarra was overthrown during a military rebellion on August 20, 1935.  Federico Paez established a military government on September 26, 1935.  The government suppressed a rebellion led by former President Velasco Ibarra in October 1936.  President Paez resigned on October 22, 1937, and General Alberto Enriquez was appointed as provisional president on October 23, 1937.  The government suppressed a rebellion in April 1938.  General Enriquez resigned as president in August 1938, and Manuel Borrero was appointed as provisional president.  President Manuel Borrero resigned on December 1, 1938, and Aurelio Mosquera Naevaez was elected president by the Congress on December 2, 1938.  President Mosquera Naevaez dissolved the Constituent Assembly on December 14, 1938.  President Mosquera Naevaez died in November 1939.  Carlos Arroyo del Rio of the PL was elected president in January 1940.  Major Giron led a rebellion against the government in Guayaquil on May 27-20, 1944, resulting in the deaths of some 80 individuals.  President Arroyo del Rio resigned on May 29, 1944, and Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra was elected president by the Constituent Assembly on June 4, 1944.  Some 1,200 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 5, 1944-August 22, 1947):  The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Velasco Ibarra on June 7, 1944.  A new constitution was approved on March 6, 1945, and the constitution went into effect on December 31, 1945.  Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on June 30, 1946, and the CP won 33 out of 62 seats.  The PL boycotted the elections.  The government suppressed a rebellion on August 3, 1946.  President Velasco Ibarra was re-elected by the Constituent Assembly on August 11, 1946.  The government suppressed a military rebellion on March 14, 1947.

Crisis Phase (August 23, 1947-September 1, 1948):  President Velasco Ibarra was deposed in a military rebellion led by Colonel Carlos Mancheno on August 23, 1947, and he went into exile in Argentina on August 24, 1947.  Colonel Mancheno abolished the 1944 constitution, and installed himself as president on August 28, 1947.  President Mancheno was overthrown in a Conservative rebellion led by Colonel Angel Baquero Davila on September 2, 1947.  Carlos Julio Arosemena was elected as provisional president on September 15, 1947.  Galo Plaza Lasso of the National Democratic Civic Movement Party (Partido Movimento Civico Democratico Nacional – PMCDN) was elected president on June 6, 1948, and he was inaugurated as president on September 1, 1948.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 2, 1948-July 10, 1963):  The government of President Galo Plaza Lasso suppressed a rebellion led by former Minister of Interior Carlos Guevara Moreno in Guayaquil on July 16, 1950. Municipal elections were held on November 4, 1951, and Carlos Guevara Moreno of the Concentracion de Fuerzas Populares (CFP) was elected mayor of Guayaquil. The US agreed to provide military assistance to the government on February 20, 1952. The government suppressed a military rebellion in Guayaquil on March 3, 1952. Two individuals were killed during political violence in Tulcan on March 13, 1952, and one individual was killed during political violence in Quito on March 23, 1952. Supporters of Eduardo Salazar Gomez, candidate of the Alianza Democratica Ecuatoriana (ADE), and Jose Marie Velasco Ibarra, candidate of the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal – PL), clashed in Cuenca on April 13, 1952, resulting in the death of one individual. Two individuals were killed during political violence in Quito on April 26, 1952. Jose Marie Velasco Ibarra, supported by the CFP, was elected president with 45 percent of the vote on June 1, 1952, and he was inaugurated as president on September 1, 1952. The government suppressed a military rebellion in Guayaquil on December 9, 1952, and arrested Mayor Guevara Moreno and several other individuals for their involvement in the military rebellion.  Legislative elections were held on June 6, 1954. Camilo Ponce Enriquez of the Conservative Party (CP) was elected president on June 3, 1956. The government suppressed a military rebellion headed by Lt. Colonel Arturo Davila in Manabi province on August 8-14, 1956. Camilo Ponce Enriquez was inaugurated as president on August 31, 1956. Some 37 individuals were killed during political violence in Guayaquil on June 3-4, 1959. Municipal elections were held on November 1, 1959. Seven individuals were killed during political violence in Quito on March 19, 1960. Jose Marie Velasco Ibarra was elected president on June 5, 1960, and he was inaugurated as president on September 1, 1960. On October 16, 1961, the government announced that it had uncovered a communist plot led by Colonel Cesar Paredes to overthrow the government. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Guayaquil and other cities on November 4-6, 1961. President Velasco Ibarra resigned on November 7, 1961, and Vice-President Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy was proclaimed as president by the Congress on November 8, 1961. Vice-President Arosemena Monroy was inaugurated as president on November 9, 1961. Some 35 individuals were killed in political violence on November 4-8, 1961.  Legislative elections were held on June 3, 1962, and the CP won 51 out of 73 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Supporters of President Arosemena Monroy won 22 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Three individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Some 250 individuals were killed in political violence from September 1948 to July 1963.

Crisis Phase (July 11, 1963-March 29, 1966):  President Arosemena Monroy was overthrown in a military rebellion on July 11, 1963, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. A four-member military junta headed by Captain Ramon Castro Jijon took control of the government on July 12, 1963. The military junta proclaimed martial law and banned the Communist Party of Ecuador (Partido Communista de Ecuador – PCE) on July 12, 1963. On March 29, 1966, the military junta was overthrown by the High Command of the Armed Forces after the deaths of five individuals during anti-government demonstrations. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 30, 1966-February 14, 1972): Clemente Yerovi Indaburu was appointed as provisional president on March 30, 1966, and he formed a civilian government on April 5, 1966. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on October 16, 1966. The Constituent Assembly elected Otto Arosemena Gomez as provisional president on November 17, 1966. The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on May 25, 1967. Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra was elected president on June 2, 1968, and he was inaugurated as president on September 1, 1968. The Organization of American States (OAS) sent three observers to monitor the presidential election from May 27 to June 12, 1968. The OAS mission issued a report on July 4, 1968.  On June 22, 1970, President Velasco Ibarra assumed emergency powers following months of student unrest in Quito and Guayaquil. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion by 250 government soldiers in Quito on March 31, 1971.

Crisis Phase (February 15, 1972-January 15, 1976):  President Velasco Ibarra was deposed in a military coup led by General Guillermo Rodriguez Lara on February 15, 1972.  General Rodriguez Lara proclaimed himself head-of-state on February 17, 1972. Government troops suppressed a right-wing military rebellion led by General Raul Gonzales Alvear on September 1, 1975, resulting in the deaths of some 22 individuals. A three-member military junta headed by Vice Admiral Alfredo Poveda Burbano took control of the government and imposed a state-of-siege on January 11, 1976. The military junta lifted the state-of-siege on January 15, 1976. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 16, 1976-June 13, 1994):  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on January 15, 1978.   Legislative elections were held on April 29, 1979, and the Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP) won 45 out of 69 seats in the National Assembly.  Jaime Roldos Aguilera of the CFP was elected president with 68 percent of the vote on April 29, 1979, and he was inaugurated as president on August 10, 1979.  President Roldos Aguilera was killed in a plane crash on May 24, 1981.  The government declared a state-of-emergency on October 21-29, 1982.  Legislative elections were held on January 29 and May 6, 1984, and the Democratic Left (DL) won 24 out of 71 seats in the National Congress.  Leon Febres Cordero of the National Reconstruction Front (FRN) was elected president with 52 percent of the vote on May 6, 1984.  On September 1-2, 1985, government troops killed five Elroy Alfaro Popular Armed Forces (EAPAF) rebels after the kidnapping of Nahim Isaias Barquet on August 7, 1985.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Lt. General Frank Vargas Pazzos beginning on March 11, 1986.  The government declared a state-of-emergency from March 14-17, 1986.  Legislative elections were held on June 1, 1986, and the FRN won 17 out of 59 contested seats.  Ricardo Arturo Jarrin, leader of the EAPAF, was killed by government troops on October 27, 1986.  The Confederation of Indigenous Nations of Ecuador (Confederacion de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador – CONAIE) was established by some 500 indigenous representatives at a convention held on November 13-16, 1986.  President Febres Cordero and 40 staff personnel were held hostage by military commandos at Tauta air base on January 16, 1987.  Fifty-eight of the commandos were court martialed and sentenced to prison terms on July 21, 1987.  The government declared a state of emergency from October 28 to October 30, 1987.  Rodrigo Borja Cevallos of the DL was elected president on May 8, 1988, and he was inaugurated as president on August 10, 1988.  The government declared a state-of-emergency from May 31 to June 1, 1988.  The government declared a state-of-emergency from September 27 to October 13, 1989.  Legislative elections were held on January 31, 1990. Sixto Duran-Ballen of the right-wing Republican Unity Party (RUP) was elected president in a run-off election on July 5, 1992.  Legislative elections were held on May 1, 1994, and the Social Christian Party (Partido Social Cristiano – PSC) won 22 out of 65 contested seats in the National Congress.  President Duran-Ballen signed a new Agrarian Reform Law on June 13, 1994.

Crisis Phase (June 14, 1994-July 25, 1994):  Indigenous groups protested the signing of the Agrarian Reform Law beginning on June 14, 1994.  President Duran-Ballen declared a state-of-emergency on June 21, 1994.  On July 25, 1994, representatives of the government and CONAIE reached an agreement to make changes to the Agrarian Reform Law.  Some 50 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 26, 1994-January 10, 1999):  Eleven constitutional amendments were rejected in a referendum on November 26, 1995.  Legislative elections were held on May 19, 1996, and the PSC won 27 out of 82 seats in the Chamber of Representatives.  The Ecudorean Roldosist Party (Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriano – PRE) won 19 seats in the Chamber of Representatives.  The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) sent four observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Abdala Bucaram Ortiz of the PRE was elected president with 54 percent of the vote on July 7, 1996.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 50 observers to monitor the election process from May 12 to July 8, 1996.  Abdala Bucaram Ortiz was inaugurated as president on August 10, 1996.  The National Congress impeached President Bucaram Ortiz for “mental incompetence” on February 6, 1997.  The National Congress declared a state-of-emergency on February 7, 1997, and elected Vice President Rosalia Arteaga Serrano as interim president on February 8, 1997. President Arteaga Serrano submitted her resignation on February 11, 1997, and the National Congress appointed Fabian Alarcon Rivera as provisional president on February 12, 1997. President Alarcon Rivera was endorsed in a referendum on May 25, 1997. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on November 30, 1997, and the PSC won 24 out of 70 seats in the assembly.  Legislative elections were held on May 31 and July 12, 1998, and the Popular Democracy Party (PDP) won 35 out of 121 seats in the National Congress.  Jamil Mahuad of the PDP was elected president with 51 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on July 12, 1998.  The IFES sent two observers to monitor the elections.  The OAS sent 40 observers to monitor the elections between May and July 1998.

Crisis Phase (January 11, 1999-January 15, 2003):  The government declared a state-of-emergency in Guayas province on January 11, 1999.  The government declared a 60-day state-of-emergency on March 9, 1999.  President Mahuad declared a state-of-emergency on July 6, 1999.  President Mahuad was overthrown during a rebellion supported by the military on January 20-22, 2000.  The OAS Council expressed support for President Mahuad, and condemned the rebellion on January 21, 2000.  The OAS secretary-general condemned the rebellion on January 21, 2000.  A three-member junta including Antonio Vargas of CONAIE, Colonel Lucio Gutierrez, and Carlos Solorzano took control of the government on January 21, 2000, but Vice-President Gustavo Noboa was approved as president by the Congress on January 22, 2000. Brazil condemned the rebellion on January 21, 2000.  Britain, Chile, France, Peru, and the US condemned the rebellion on January 22, 2000.  The European Union (EU) condemned the rebellion on January 22, 2000. The OAS Council condemned the overthrow of President Mahuad on January 26, 2000.  The CONAIE organized demonstrations against the government beginning on January 21, 2001.  The government declared a state-of-emergency on February 2, 2001.  Government troops killed two indigenous persons in the Amazon region on February 5, 2001.  The government lifted the state-of-emergency on February 7, 2001.  Legislative elections were held on October 20, 2002, and the PSC won 26 out of 100 seats in the National Congress. The PRE won 15 seats in the National Congress.  Lucio Edwin Gutierrez of the Partido Sociedad Patriotica (PSP) was elected president with 54 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on November 24, 2002, and he was inaugurated as president on January 15, 2003.  The OAS sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 26 observers headed by Jorge Quiroga of Bolivia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 12 to November 25, 2002.  The EU sent six election experts, 16 long-term observers, and 40 short-term observers headed by Emma Bonino of Italy to monitor the presidential and legislative elections between September 9 and December 15, 2002.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 15, 2003-December 8, 2004):   Regional elections were held on October 17, 2004.  The OAS sent observers to monitor the regional elections.

Crisis Phase (December 9, 2004-November 30, 2005):  President Gutierrez dismissed the entire 31-member Supreme Court on December 9, 2004.  The U.S. government offered to “facilitate dialogue” between the government and opposition on April 7, 2005.  President Gutierrez declared a state-of-emergency on April 15, 2005, but lifted the state-of-emergency on April 16, 2005.  Congress removed President Gutierrez from power on April 20, 2005, and installed Vice-President Alfredo Palacio as president.  The South America Community of Nations (CSN) attempted to mediate negotiations in Ecuador beginning on April 21, 2005.  The OAS sent a high-level fact-finding mission to Ecuador from April 22 to May 11, 2005.  On August 18, 2005, OAS Secretary-General Jose Miguel Insulza appointed Sonia Picado of Costa Rica and Jose Antonio Viera Gallo of Chile as special representatives to monitor the process of selecting members of the Supreme Court.  The UN and CSN also sent observers to monitor the process of selecting members of the Supreme Court.  OAS Assistant Secretary-General Albert Ramdin appealed for a “constructive dialogue” on August 30, 2005.  Thirty-one individuals were sworn in as judges on the Supreme Court on November 30, 2005.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 1, 2005-present):  Legislative elections were held on October 15, 2006, and the Institutional Renewal Party of National Action (Partido Renovador Institucional de Acción Nacional – PRIAN) won 27 out of 100 seats in the National Congress.  The Patriotic Society Party (Partido Sociedad Patriótica – PSP) won 23 seats in the National Congress.  Rafael Correa of the Proud and Sovereign Fatherland Alliance (Patria Altiva i Soberana – PAIS) was elected president with 57 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on November 26, 2006.  The OAS sent observers headed by Rafael Bielsa of Argentina to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from August 15 to November 27, 2006.

Crisis Phase (September 30, 2010-October 8, 2010):  On September 30, 2010, government soldiers and police staged a rebellion in protest of a government-sponsored law to reduce their benefits.  President Rafael Correa declared a state of emergency on September 30, 2010.  President Correa accused former president Lucio Edwin Gutierrez and opposition politicians of “attempting to instigate a coup.”  U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton expressed support for the government of President Correa.  The Organization of American States (OAS) Permanent Council expressed support for the government.  President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela condemned the rebellion.  President Sebastian Pinera of Chile expressed support for the government.  The governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, and Spain expressed support for the government of President Correa.  On October 6, 2010, some 40 government policemen were detained for their suspected involvement in the rebellion.  President Correa lifted the state of emergency on October 8, 2010.  Eight individuals were killed during the crisis, including one government policeman and two government soldiers.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 9, 2010-present):

[Sources: Associated Press (AP), January 21, 2000, January 22, 2000, November 25, 2002, January 15, 2003; Banks and Muller, 1998, 271-277; Bannon and Dunne, 1947, 633-648; Beigbeder, 1994, 232; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), May 1, 1998, July 6, 1999, January 22, 2000, February 3, 2001, February 4, 2001, February 13, 2001, November 25, 2002, November 10, 2004, December 9, 2004, April 8, 2005, April 16, 2005, April 17, 2005, April 20, 2005, April 24, 2005, November 30, 2005; Cable News Network (CNN), March 9, 1999, February 8, 2001; Degenhardt, 1988, 82-83; Dupoy and Dupoy, 1977, 1342-1343; European Union (EU) press release, September 10, 2002; European Union (EU) statement, November 25, 2002; Facts on File, June 30-July 6, 1946, August 11-17, 1946, August 24-30, 1947, August 31-September 6, 1947, June 6-12, 1948, August 29-September 4, 1948, May 30-June 5, 1952, September 12-18, 1956, June 16-22, 1960, November 2-8, 1961, November 9-15, 1961, June 7-13, 1962, July 11-17, 1963, May 19-25, 1966, December 26-31, 1968, February 13-19, 1972, September 13, 1975, January 12, 1976, May 4, 1979, August 17, 1979; Financial Times (FT), April 21, 2005; Foreign Relations of the US (FRUS), 1911, 186-188; Hispanic American Report (HAR), July 1950, November 1951, March 1952, April 1952, June 1952, November 1952, July 1956, August 1956, September 1959, May 1960, November 1960, December 1961, July 1963; Jessup, 1998, 175-177; Keesing’s Record of World Events, June 17-24, 1944, August 31-September 7, 1946, September 13-20, 1947, October 11-18, 1947, July 10-17, 1948, July 2-9, 1960, December 16-23, 1961, August 17-24, 1963, October 22-29, 1966, April 29-May 6, 1967, June 29-July 6, 1968, July 11-18, 1970, May 29-June 5, 1971; March 11-18, 1972, October 6-12, 1975, February 13, 1976, July 20, 1979, November 2, 1979, July 1992, July 1996, August 1996, February 1997, December 1997, May 1998; Langer, 1972, 851-852, 1257; Munro, 1961, 281-291; New York Times (NYT), October 21, 1982,, October 29, 1982, October 28, 1987, October 30, 1987; Organization of American States (OAS) press release, January 21, 2000, January 26, 2000, September 20, 2002, October 18, 2004, April 22, 2005, April 26, 2005, May 11, 2005, August 18, 2005, August 30, 2005, August 15, 2006, November 27, 2006, November 28, 2006; Reuters, January 21, 2000, January 22, 2000, October 21, 2002, January 15, 2003; Robertson, 1943, 358-378; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1938, 698-699.]