47. Zambia (1964-present)

 

Crisis Phase (October 24, 1964-November 8, 1991):  British North Rhodesia (Zambia) formally achieved its independence from Britain and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on October 24, 1964.  A state of emergency, which was declared in British North Rhodesia on July 27, 1964, remained in effect following Zambia’s independence.  Five individuals were killed in political violence on Chillialabombwe on August 13, 1968. The government banned the United Party (UP) headed by Nalumino Mundia on August 14, 1968. President Kenneth Kaunda dissolved the parliament on November 3, 1968.  Legislative elections were held on December 19, 1968, and the United National Independence Party (UNIP) won 81 out of 105 seats in the National Assembly. The African National Congress (ANC) won 23 seats in the National Assembly. President Kaunda was re-elected with 82 percent of the vote on December 19, 1968.

Map of Zambia

The United Progressive Party (UPP) was established by former Vice-President Simon Kapwepwe in August 1971. Government police arrested some 100 supporters of the UPP on September 20-22, 1971. President Kaunda banned the UPP on February 4, 1972.  Some 125 members of the UPP, including Simon Kapwepwe, were arrested by government police. The UNIP headed by President Kaunda was declared the country’s sole legal political party by the National Assembly on December 8, 1972.  Legislative elections were held on December 5, 1973, and the UNIP won 125 out of 125 elected seats in the National Assembly.  President Kaunda was re-elected with 80 percent of the vote on December 5, 1973, and he was inaugurated for a five-year term on December 7, 1973.  Former Vice-President Simon Kapwepwe was released from prison on December 31, 1972.  The Second Republic (one-party state) was formally inaugurated on January 1, 1973.  Adamson Bratson Mushala led an insurgency against the government in northwestern Zambia beginning in January 1976.  On January 28, 1976, President Kenneth Kaunda assumed emergency powers “to counter any move to destroy our country.”  Government troops attacked Adamson Bratson Mushala’s base camp in May 1976, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals.  Insurgents attacked villages near Matushi and Mufumbwe in July 1976, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  Government troops clashes with insurgents in July 1976, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers.  Legislative elections were held on December 12, 1978, and the UNIP won 125 out of 125 elected seats in the National Assembly.  President Kaunda was re-elected with 81 percent of the vote on December 12, 1978, and he was inaugurated for a five-year term on December 15, 1978.  President Kaunda suppressed a rebellion against the government on October 16, 1980, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. Sixteen individuals were convicted and sentenced to death for their involvement in the rebellion.  Adamson Bratson Mushala was ambushed and killed by government troops in Lunga national parks on November 26, 1982.  President Kaunda dissolved the National Assembly on August 27, 1983.  Legislative elections were held on October 27, 1983, and the UNIP won 125 out of 125 elected seats in the National Assembly.  President Kaunda was re-elected with 93 percent of the vote on October 27, 1983, and he was inaugurated on October 30, 1983.  Nalumino Mundia formed a government as prime minister on November 3, 1983.  Some 15 individuals were killed in food riots on December 7-12, 1986. Opposition political parties demanded multiparty elections in Zambia in 1988.  Legislative elections were held on October 26, 1988, and the UNIP won 125 out of 125 elected seats in the National Assembly.  President Kaunda was re-elected with 96 percent of the vote on October 26, 1988. President Kaunda appointed General Malimba Masheke as prime minister on March 15, 1989.  Some 30 individuals died in food riots in June 1990.   The government suppressed a military rebellion led by Lt. Mwamba Luchembe on June 30, 1990.  Alexander Kamalondo, second-in-command to the late-insurgent leader Adamson Bratson Mushala, surrendered to government authorities on September 25, 1990.  In September 1990, President Kaunda agreed to hold multiparty elections, and the National Assembly legalized the formation of political parties on December 4, 1990. The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) was established on December 22, 1990. A new constitution went into effect on August 29, 1991, and President Kaunda dissolved the National Assembly.  Legislative elections were held on October 31-November 1, 1991, and the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) won 125 out of 150 seats in the National Assembly. The UNIP won 25 seats in the National Assembly.  Frederick Chiluba of the MMD was elected president with 73 percent of the vote on November 1, 1991, and he was inaugurated as president on November 2, 1991. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent five personnel to monitor the presidential and legislative elections. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 22 observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 10 to November 3, 1991.  The Carter Center/Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government (CFEHG) and National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 40 observers from 12 countries headed by Jimmy Carter and Brian Atwood of the U.S. to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on October 27, 1991. The government lifted the state-of-emergency, which was initially declared on July 27, 1964, on November 8, 1991.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 9, 1991-March 3, 1993):

Crisis Phase (March 4, 1993-March 17, 1998):  President Chiluba declared a state-of-emergency on March 4, 1993.  President Chiluba lifted the state-of-emergency on May 25, 1993.  The National Assembly approved the Constitution of Zambia Amendment Act on May 16, 1996, which prohibited individuals not born in the country to Zambian parents from running for political office. The government arrested eight leaders of the United National Independence Party (UNIP) on June 3, 1996. The governments of Britain, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S. imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Zambian government on June 5, 1996. President Chiluba dissolved the National Assembly on October 19, 1996.  Legislative elections were held on November 18, 1996, and the MMD won 131 out of 150 elected seats in the National Assembly.   On October 23, 1996, Kenneth Kaunda announced that the UNIP would boycott the upcoming presidential election. President Chiluba was re-elected with 70 percent of the vote on November 18, 1996. The government suppressed a military rebellion led by Captain Steven Lungu on October 28, 1997, resulting in the death of one individual.  President Chiluba declared a state-of-emergency on October 29, 1997. Some 80 individuals were arrested for their involvement in the military rebellion, including 78 soldiers and Dean Mung’omba, the leader of the Zambia Democratic Congress (ZDC). The European Union (EU) condemned the military rebellion on October 30, 1997. On December 25, 1997, Kenneth Kaunda and Moyce Kaulung’ombe were arrested for their alleged involvement in the military rebellion.  The U.S. government condemned the government for the arrest of Kenneth Kaunda on December 29, 1997, and Kenneth Kaunda was released from jail on December 31, 1997.  The EU urged President Chiluba to lift the state-of-emergency on January 29, 1998, and President Chiluba lifted the state-of-emergency on March 17, 1998.  The governments of Britain, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S. lifted economic sanctions against the government of Zambia in 1998.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 18, 1998-present): On May 11, 1998, Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the government on May 11, 1998 for human rights abuses. Kenneth Kaunda was released from detention on June 1, 1998. The National Citizens Coalition (NCC) was established by Nevers Mumba on June 20, 1998, and the NCC agreed to merge with the Agenda for Zambia (AFZ) and the ZDC on September 4, 1998. On September 17, 1999, Captain Steven Lungu and 58 soldiers were convicted of treason and sentenced to death for their involvement in the 1997 military rebellion. The ZDC was dissolved as a political party on August 12, 1999, and ZDC members joined the Zambian Alliance for Progress (ZAP).  Wezi Kaunda, son of former president Kenneth Kaunda, was fatally shot in Lusaka on November 4, 1999.  Levy Mwanawasa of the MMD was elected president with 28 percent of the vote on December 27, 2001, and he was inaugurated as president on January 2, 2002.  Legislative elections were held on December 27, 2001, and the MMD won 69 out of 159 seats in the National Assembly. The United Party for National Development (UPND) won 49 seats in the National Assembly, and the UNIP won 13 seats in the National Assembly. Opposition political parties claimed election fraud. The European Union (EU) sent three election experts, 16 long-term observers, and 86 short-term observers headed by Michael Meadowcroft of Britain to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from July 2001 to February 2002.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 35 observers headed by Abdulsalami Abubakar of Nigeria to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from November 5 to December 30, 2001. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from December 10 to December 28, 2001. The Carter Center (CC) issued a report concerning the election on January 31, 2002.  On February 28, 2004, President Mwanawasa commuted the death sentences of 44 soldiers who had been convicted of treason in September 1999 (the death sentences of ten other soldiers convicted of treason had been commuted by the Zambian Supreme Court on December 18, 2003).  The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent a pre-election assessment mission to Zambia from July 18 to July 25, 2006.  President Levy Mwanawasa was re-elected with 43 percent of the vote on September 28, 2006.  Legislative elections were held on September 28, 2006, and the MMD won 74 out of 159 seats in the National Assembly.  The Patriotic Front (PF) won 44 seats, and United Democratic Alliance (UDA) won 27 seats in the National Assembly.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 41 observers headed by Philip Marmo of Tanzania to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 21 to October 2, 2006.  The European Union (EU) sent eight election experts, 36 long-term observers, and 48 short-term observers headed by Annemie Neyts of Belgium to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 5 to October 29, 2006.  The African Union (AU) sent observers headed by Mninwa Jahannes Mahlangu of South Africa to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 17 to October 5, 2006.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on September 25, 2006.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent 14 observers headed by Abel Leshele Thoahlane of Lesotho to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 24 to October 3, 2006.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent ten observers and five staff headed by Paul Berenger of Mauritius to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 1 to October 5, 2006.  On August 19, 2008, President Levy Mwanawasa died from complications of a stroke on July 29, 2008.  Vice President Rupiah Banda became acting president on August 19, 2008.  Rupiah Banda was elected president with 40 percent of the vote on October 30, 2008, and he was sworn in as president on November 3, 2008.  The SADC sent more than 100 observers led by John Kunene of Swaziland to monitor the presidential election from October 14 to November 1, 2008.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent 20 observers from 16 countries headed by Abel Leshele Thoahlane of Lesotho to monitor the presidential election.  Former president Frederick Chiluba was acquitted of charges of embezzlement on August 18, 2009.  Legislative elections were held on September 20, 2011, and the Patriotic Front (PF) won 60 out of 150 seats in the National Assembly.  The MMD won 55 seats in the National Assembly.  Michael Sata of the PF was elected president with 42 percent of the vote on September 20, 2011, and he was sworn in as president on September 23, 2011.  The African Union (AU) sent 30 observers from 15 countries to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 16 to September 24, 2011.  The European Union (EU) sent 120 observers from 29 countries to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from August 12 to October 8, 2011.  The SADC Parliamentary Forum sent 40 observers from 12 countries headed by Elifas Dingara from Namibia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 6 to September 24, 2011.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 13 to September 22, 2011.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent 12 observers from 11 countries to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 13 to September 22, 2011.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the International Conference for the Great Lakes Regions (ICGLR) jointly sent 52 observers from 11 countries led by Immaculee Nahayo of Burundi and Raphael Tuju of Kenya to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The former ruling party, Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), was dissolved by the government for “unpaid fees” on March 14, 2012.  The Zambian High Court overturned the dissolution of the MMD on June 26, 2012.  Former president Rupiah Banda was arrested for embezzlement on March 25, 2013.

[Sources: Africa Contemporary Record (ACR), 1990-1992; Africa Diary, March 5-11, 1979, March 11-17, 1984; Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), December 1-31, 1973, December 1-31, 1978, October 1-31, 1983, January 15, 1987; African Union (AU) press release, September 19, 2011, September 22, 2011; Associated Press (AP), September 17, 1999; Banks and Muller, 1998, 1036-1041; Beigbeder, 1994, 245, 281, 286; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), December 18, 2003, October 1, 2006, October 2, 2006, May 31, 2007, June 30, 2008, August 19, 2008, November 2, 2008, November 3, 2008, August 17, 2009, September 22, 2011, September 23, 2011, March 14, 2012, June 26, 2012, March 25, 2013; Carter Center (CC) press release, November 5, 2001, December 30, 2001, January 31, 2002; Commonwealth of Nations (CON) press release, September 15, 2006, September 28, 2006, September 22, 2011; Degenhardt, 1988, 424; European Union (EU) statement, September 30, 2006; Facts on File, December 26-31, 1968, December 23-31, 1973, December 22, 1978, December 31, 2001; Jessup, 1998, 375, 381-383, 831-832; Keesing’s Record of World Events, December 12-18, 1968, April 26-May 3, 1969, October 14-21, 1972, January 8-14, 1973, February 27, 1981, December 1983, December 1990, October 1991, November 1991, March 1993, June 1996, November 1996, October 1997, March 1998, September 1999; Los Angeles Times (LAT), December 10, 1986, June 28, 1990, June 29, 1990, June 30, 1990, July 1, 1990; New York Times (NYT), November 29, 1982, January 2, 1983, December 10, 1986, December 12, 1986, July 1, 1990, November 3, 1991, November 21, 1996, October 29, 1997, December 25, 1997, January 1, 1998, November 5, 1999, January 3, 2002, February 7, 2002, February 28, 2004, October 3, 2006, August 20, 2008, October 31, 2008, November 3, 2008, August 18, 2009, July 19, 2011, September 23, 2011, October 31, 2011; Reuters, December 25, 1997, January 30, 1998, December 27, 2001, December 29, 2001, January 2, 2002; Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) press release, September 17, 2006; The Post (Lusaka), December 18, 2001, December 29, 2001, December 30, 2001, December 31, 2001, January 1, 2002, January 2, 2002, January 9, 2002; Times of Zambia, April 24, 1998; Zambia Today, September 4, 1998.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Bjornlund, Eric, Michael Bratton, and Clark Gibson. 1992. “Observing Multiparty Elections in Africa: Lessons From Zambia.” African Affairs 91: 405-431.

Pettman, Jan. 1974. “Zambia’s Second Republic – The Establishment of a One-Party State,” The Journal of Modern African Studies,” vol. 12 (2), pp. 231-244.

Van Donge, Jan Kees. 1998. “Reflections on Donors, Opposition and Popular Will in the 1996 Zambian General Elections.” Journal of Modern African Studies 36 (no.1): 71-99.