44. Uganda (1962-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (October 9, 1962-January 22, 1964):  Uganda formally achieved its independence from Britain and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) on October 9, 1962. Milton Obote, leader of the Uganda People’s Congress (UPC), became prime minister on October 9, 1962. Edward Frederick Mutesa II, King of Buganda, was elected president on October 9, 1963.

Crisis Phase (January 23, 1964-January 19, 1979):  Several government soldiers rebelled against the government near Lake Victoria beginning on January 23, 1964, and Prime Minister Obote requested British military assistance on January 24, 1964. Some 500 British troops were deployed in support of the government on January 25, 1964.  The British government agreed to provide military assistance to the Ugandan government on March 3, 1964. British troops withdrew from the country on August 1, 1964. Prime Minister Obote assumed emergency powers on February 22, 1966, and deposed President Mutesa on March 2, 1966.  Former president Mutesa led a rebellion against the government in Buganda beginning on March 3, 1966. Prime Minister Obote was elected president by the National Assembly on April 15, 1966. Government troops suppressed the rebellion in Buganda on May 28, 1966.  A new constitution went into effect on September 8, 1967. Former president Edward Frederick Mutesa died in exile in London on November 21, 1969.  President Obote survived an attempted assassination on December 19, 1969.  President Obote declared a state-of-emergency and banned opposition political parties on December 20, 1969.  President Obote was deposed in a military coup led by General Idi Amin Dada on January 25, 1971. General Amin appointed himself president-for-life, and President Obote went into exile in Tanzania. Tanzania imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government of General Amin on January 28, 1971. Guinea and Somalia imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government of General Amin on January 29, 1971. President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government of General Amin on February 5, 1971. Britain and Ghana provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of General Amin on February 5, 1971. Some 10,000 government troops defeated an invasion of some 1,000 supporters of former President Milton Obote from Tanzania on September 15, 1972. The government expelled some 50,000 Asians, including 20,000 citizens of Uganda, from the country in 1972. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Brig. Charles Arube in Kampala on March 23-24, 1974, resulting in the deaths of several individuals. The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the government on June 4, 1974. Amnesty International (AI) condemned human rights abuses and some 50,000 killings by the government in a report issued on February 6, 1977. Government police killed Bishop Janani Luwum, the Anglican Archbishop of Uganda, and two government ministers on February 16, 1977. Burgess Carr, general-secretary of the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC), condemned the death of Archbishop Luwum on February 17, 1977. The US, World Council of Churches (WCC), and International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the death of Archbishop Luwum on February 17, 1977. Government troops killed some 2,000 members of the Lango and Acholi tribes on February 17-27, 1977. On May 17, 1977, the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned President Amin for political murders. On September 9, 1977, fifteen individuals were executed by the government for plotting to assassinate President Amin. The US imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) against the government on October 10, 1978.  Some 300,000 individuals were killed, and some 50,000 individuals were displaced as a result of political violence between May 1966 and January 1979.

Conflict Phase (January 20, 1979-April 13, 1979): Ugandan rebels and some 40,000 Tanzanian government troops invaded the country beginning on January 20, 1979.  President Amin referred the matter to the United Nations (UN) secretary-general on January 27, 1979. President Amin referred the matter to the UN Security Council on February 13, 1979. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) established a conciliation committee (Central African Republic, Gabon, Gambia, Madagascar, Nigeria, Togo, Tunisia, Zaire, Zambia) headed by the representative from Nigeria. The OAU conciliation commission unsuccessfully attempted to mediate a cessation of military hostilities from February 21 to March 2, 1979. President Daniel Moi of Kenya appealed for a ceasefire on February 25, 1979. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) provided $4 million in economic assistance to the government in March 1979. The Organization of Frontline States (OFLS) condemned the government on March 5, 1979. Libya deployed some 2,500 troops in support of the government beginning on March 4, 1979 (President Amin had requested military assistance on February 25, 1979). Ugandan exiles met in Moshi in northern Tanzania, and established the Uganda National Liberation Front (UNLF) on March 24-26, 1979. The UNLF formed an eleven-member executive council with Yusuf Lule as chairman, as well as a National Consultative Council (NCC). Libyan troops departed Uganda on April 7, 1979.  President Amin’s government was overthrown by 5,000 Tanzanian soldiers and 3,000 Ugandan rebels on April 10, 1979, and Yusufu Lule was proclaimed president by the UNLF on April 13, 1979. The governments of Botswana, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia had provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on April 12, 1979. Some 3,500 individuals were killed during the conflict, including some 440 Tanzanian soldiers and 200 Libyan soldiers. Some 100,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 14, 1979-February 5, 1981):  The governments of Britain, Ethiopia, and India provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Lule on April 15, 1979. The European Community (EC) provided humanitarian assistance to the government beginning on April 25, 1979. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the World Food Program (WFP) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning in May 1979 (the ICRC mission was ordered out of the country on March 31, 1982).  The Chinese government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on May 2, 1979. The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (trade embargo) against the government on May 15, 1979. President Lule was dismissed by the NCC on June 20, 1979, and Godfrey Binaisa was appointed president by the NCC on June 21, 1979.  The Tanzanian government provided civilian police assistance (1,000 policemen) to the government beginning on September 30, 1979.  The British government provided civilian police assistance (60 police officers) to the government beginning in October 1979.  The Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM) was established in opposition to the government in 1979.  President Binaisa was deposed by the Military Commission of the UNLF on May 10-11, 1980, and the six-member military commission headed by Paulo Muwanga took control of the government on May 12, 1980.  Milton Obote returned to Uganda from Tanzania on May 27, 1980.  A five-person electoral commission was appointed on July 15, 1980, and registration of voters began on October 6, 1980.  Legislative elections were held on December 10, 1980, and the Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) won 72 out of 126 seats in the National Assembly. The Democratic Party (DP) won 51 seats in the National Assembly. Milton Obote of the UPC was elected president on December 10, 1980, and he was inaugurated as president on December 15, 1980. The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent 70 observers from nine countries headed by Ebenezer Deborah of Ghana to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on November 24, 1980. On December 18, 1980, the COG-Uganda reported that the elections had been valid.  General Yoweri Museveni, leader of the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), claimed election fraud. Some 10,000 Tanzanian troops remained in the country until June 30, 1981 (some 620 Tanzanian soldiers were killed during the deployment in Uganda).

Conflict Phase (February 6, 1981-January 26, 1986): The National Resistance Army (NRA) led by General Yoweri Kaguta Museveni rebelled against the government of President Obote beginning on February 6, 1981.  The Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM) initiated a terrorist campaign against the government in April 1981. Some 10,000 Tanzanian troops intervened in support of the government of President Obote in April 1981, and completed their withdrawal from Uganda on June 30, 1981. Some 620 Tanzanian soldiers were killed in Uganda between 1979 and June 30, 1981. Former Presidents Godfrey Binaisa and Yusuf Lule established the Uganda Popular Front (UPF) in opposition to the government on January 7, 1982. Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for "extra-legal executions, torture, killings of people in detention, and abductions" on April 15, 1982. The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) provided military assistance (36 military advisers from Australia, Britain, Canada, Guyana, Jamaica, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania, commanded by Colonel J. H. Clavering of Britain) to the government between March 15, 1982 and March 15, 1984. NRA rebels killed 81 civilians near Kikyusa on May 30, 1983. Government troops killed some 90 individuals in Namugongo on May 25, 1984. Britain agreed to provide military assistance (military training) to the government on August 17, 1984. Some 200 North Korean troops were deployed in support of the government on November 16, 1984. President Obote was overthrown in a military rebellion led by General Bajilio Olara Okello on July 27, 1985, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals. President Obote fled to Kenya on July 28, 1985. A nine-member military council headed by General Tito Okello Lutwa took control of the government and suspended the constitution on July 29, 1985. President Daniel Moi of Kenya mediated negotiations between representatives of the Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA) and the National Resistance Army (NRA) from August 26 to December 17, 1985. General Okello and General Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, leader of the NRA, signed the Nairobi Peace Accord on December 17, 1985. Under the terms of the accord, the UNLA and NRA agreed to a ceasefire and to share government power. The NRA violated the ceasefire agreement on January 17, 1986, and NRA rebels took control of the government on January 26, 1986. Some 250,000 individuals, including some 9,000 NRA rebels and 40,000 government soldiers, were killed during the conflict.  At least 750,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 27, 1986-February 28, 1994):  General Museveni was sworn in as president on January 29, 1986. The presidents of Kenya, Rwanda, and Zaire expressed support for the government of President Museveni on January 29, 1986. Government troops captured Gulu from UNLA rebels on March 9, 1986. The government suspended political party activity on March 10, 1986. The heads-of-state of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Zaire jointly expressed support for President Museveni on March 20, 1986. The Uganda People’s Democratic Movement (UPDM) headed by Eric Otema Allimadi and Lt. Colonel John Angelo Okello began a rebellion against the government in northern Uganda in May 1986. The Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA) began a rebellion against the government in northern Uganda in January 1987.  Some 350 UNLA rebels were killed by government troops near Lira on January 18, 1987.  Andrew Lutaakome Kayiira, leader of the Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM), was assassinated on March 9, 1987.  The government largely suppressed the UNLA rebellion in August 1987. President Museveni and Lt. Colonel Okello of the UPDM signed a peace agreement in Gulu on June 4, 1988.  Eric Otema Allimadi, a leader of UPDM, rejected the peace agreement.  Representatives of the government and UPDM signed a peace agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on July 12, 1990.  The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance to the government between September 11, 1990 and December 31, 2002.  On February 6, 1994, President Yoweri Museveni issued an ultimatum to the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) led by Joseph Kony.  The ultimatum called on LRA rebels to surrender to government forces within seven days.

Conflict Phase (March 1, 1994-February 23, 2008):  The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) led by Joseph Kony launched an insurgency against the government on March 1, 1994.  Elections were held on March 28, 1994, and the National Resistance Movement (NRM) won 114 out of 214 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  The United Nations (UN) provided electoral assistance and coordinated some 110 election observers from November 1992 to December 1994.   President Yoweri Museveni appointed Kintu Musoke as prime minister on November 18, 1994.  The Allied Democratic Front (ADF) headed by Jamir Mukulu began a rebellion against the government in 1995.  LRA rebels attacked and killed between 170 and 220 civilians in Gulu District on April 22, 1995.  Government troops killed 16 LRA rebels and 13 civilians near Lokung on August 31, 1995.  The Constituent Assembly adopted a new constitution on September 22, 1995, and the constitution went into effect on October 8, 1995.  President Museveni was re-elected with 74 percent of the vote on May 9, 1996.  The Organization for African Unity (OAU) sent observers to monitor the elections, and reported that the elections were free and fair.  Legislative elections were held on June 27, 1996, and the NRM won 156 out of 276 contested seats in the National Assembly.  The UN provided electoral assistance and coordinated the Joint International Observer Group in Uganda (JIOG-Uganda) from February to July 1996. The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent the Commonwealth Observers Group (COG-Uganda) to monitor the elections. The International Foundation of Election Systems (IFES) sent five observers to monitor the election process from April 28 to June 30, 1996. LRA rebels killed 130 individuals near Karuma in March 1996, and LRA rebels killed 115 individuals at the Achol Pii refugee camp in northern Uganda on July 12-13, 1996. Amnesty International (AI) condemned the LRA for the attacks against civilians on July 18, 1996. Some 350 LRA rebels and 285 West Bank Nile Front (WBNF) rebels were killed by government troops in 1996. Some 400 individuals were killed, and some 200,000 individuals were displaced as a result of LRA rebel attacks between January and May 1997. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission consisting of some 25 international personnel and 175 local personnel to provide humanitarian assistance to Ugandans displaced during the conflict beginning in June 1997. LRA rebels offered to resume negotiations with the government on February 5, 1998. ADF rebels attacked Kichwamba and Kabatunda on April 9, 1998, resulting in the deaths of 16 individuals. Human Rights Watch (HRW) sent a fact-finding mission to Uganda in April 1998. ADF rebels killed some 60 individuals in Kaborole on June 9, 1998. HRW condemned ADF on June 10, 1998 for the attack in Kaborole. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), CARE, and Oxfam International (OI) provided humanitarian assistance to Ugandans displaced during the conflict. ADF rebels killed five individuals in Bunegeya on September 8, 1999. Government troops and ADF rebels clashed near Bundibugyo on December 10-11, 1999, resulting in the deaths of some 50 rebels, 11 civilians, and nine government soldiers. ADF rebels killed two policemen and one civilian in a national park in western Uganda on December 17, 1999. ADF rebels killed six civilians in the Huyira refugee camp near Bundibugyo on December 22, 1999. Government troops and LRA rebels clashed on December 26-29, 1999, resulting in the deaths of four rebels. LRA rebels killed five civilians in the Kitgum district in northern Uganda on December 31, 1999. The US condemned the LRA on January 6, 2000. ADF rebels killed 27 individuals near Bundibugyo and Fort Portal on January 7-11, 2000. Government troops killed 16 ADF rebels in western Uganda on January 25, 2000. ADF rebels killed five civilians in the village of Habusisi on February 10, 2000. LRA rebels killed 12 individuals in a refugees camp near Kitgum on March 6, 2000. Ugandans rejected a multiparty political system in a referendum on June 29, 2000. The OAU sent four observers headed by Benjamin Godwyll of Ghana to monitor the referendum on June 27-30, 2000. LRA rebels killed 10 individuals in the district of Kitgum on September 2, 2000. Government troops killed four supporters of presidential candidate, Colonel Kizza Besigye, in the town of Rukungiri on March 3, 2001. President Museveni was re-elected with 69 percent of the vote on March 12, 2001. The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent three observers to monitor the presidential elections from March 6 to March 13, 2001. ADF rebels killed 15 individuals in the town of Kasese on March 17, 2001. Legislative elections were held on June 26, 2001. Seven individuals were killed in election-related violence. LRA rebels killed four civilians in Gulu district on August 28, 2001. LRA rebels killed some 60 individuals in Agoro hills, southern Sudan on April 26, 2002.  LRA rebels killed 52 individuals in the village of Lapono on October 13, 2002.  President Museveni announced a temporary cessation of military hostilities on March 10, 2003.  LRA rebels killed more than 40 individuals in the Barlonya camp for internally-displaced persons (IDP) near Lira in northern Uganda on February 5, 2004.  LRA rebels killed as many as 200 civilians in the Barlonya camp near Lira on February 21, 2004.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the massacre at the Barlonya camp.  Government troops killed 30 LRA rebels in Pader District on February 26, 2004.  Government troops killed 55 LRA rebels in Bibia in northern Uganda on March 20, 2004.  LRA rebels killed some 42 civilians in the village of Lokodi on May 20, 2004.  LRA attacked a camp for displaced persons in Apac District on June 9, 2004, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 individuals.  Government troops killed at least 25 LRA rebels in southern Sudan on September 19, 2004.  The government declared a unilateral ceasefire with the LRA rebels on November 15, 2004.  LRA rebels attacked the village of Rejaf in southern Sudan on December 10, 2004, resulting in the deaths of three women and four children.  The government ended its unilateral ceasefire with LRA rebels on December 31, 2004.  The government declared an 18-day truce with LRA rebels in northern Uganda on February 3, 2005, and the truce ended on February 22, 2005  The International Criminal Court (ICC) indicted five leaders of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), including Joseph Kony and Vincent Otti, for war crimes and crimes against humanity on July 8, 2005.  On October 14, 2005, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued warrants for the arrest of the leader and four commanders of the LRA.  Opposition leader Kizza Besigye was arrested by government police in Kampala on November 14, 2005, but he was ordered released by the High Court on January 2, 2006.  At least one protester was killed by government police in Kampala on November 15, 2005.  LRA rebels ambushed and killed at least 12 individuals near the town of Pader in northern Uganda on November 21, 2005.  As a result of concerns regarding the arrest of the main Ugandan opposition leader, the British government reduced direct foreign assistance to the Ugandan government by $26 million on December 20, 2005.  Government troops killed ten LRA rebels, including senior commander Francis Kapere, in Gulu District on December 24-25, 2005.  Government troops also killed eight civilians in the Lalogi camp near Gulu on December 25-26, 2005.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in Kampala on February 15, 2006.  Legislative elections were held on February 23, 2006, and the National Resistance Movement (NRM) won 205 out of 319 seats in the National Assembly.  The Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) won 37 seats in the National Assembly.  President Museveni was re-elected with 59 percent of the vote on February 23, 2006, and he was sworn in for a third term on May 12, 2006.  The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, eight long-term observers, and 60 short-term observers headed by Max van den Berg of the Netherlands to monitor the elections beginning on January 26, 2006.  The East African Community (EAC) sent thirteen observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from February 19 to February 26, 2006.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent thirteen observers headed by Sir Ketumile Masire of Botswana to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from February 4 to March 3, 2006.  The African Union (AU) sent observers headed by Victor Tonchi of Namibia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  Representatives of the government and LRA held negotiations, which were mediated by Vice-President Riek Machar of Southern Sudan, in Juba, Sudan beginning on July 14, 2006.  The LRA declared a unilateral ceasefire on August 4, 2006.  One of the LRA leaders indicted by the ICC, Raska Lukwiya, was killed by government troops on August 12, 2006.  The parties signed a temporary ceasefire agreement in Juba, Sudan on August 26, 2006.  The parties signed another temporary ceasefire agreement in Juba, Sudan on November 1, 2006.  Following the deaths of three LRA rebels by government troops in southern Sudan, the LRA suspended its participation in peace negotiations with the government on November 29, 2006.  Former President Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique was appointed as UN Special Envoy for the LRA insurgency in Uganda on December 4, 2006.  The Ugandan government and LRA extended a ceasefire agreement by two months on December 18, 2006.  The LRA agreed to resume peace negotiations with the government on March 14, 2007, and the parties signed a new ceasefire agreement on April 14, 2007.  LRA rebels ambushed and killed seven individuals in northern Uganda on April 30, 2007.  On November 24, 2007, the British government agreed to provide economic assistance (700 million British pounds) to the government of Uganda over a ten-year period.  On February 19, 2008, the parties signed an agreement in Juba, Sudan, which provided for alleged war crimes to be tried in a special court in Uganda as opposed to the ICC in The Hague, Netherlands.  Representatives of the government and LRA signed a permanent ceasefire agreement mediated by the UN special envoy in Juba, Sudan on February 23, 2008.  Some 30,000 individuals were killed during the conflict, and some two million individuals were displaced.

Post-Conflict Phase (February 24, 2008-December 13, 2008):  Representatives of the government and LRA signed an agreement on disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration mediated by the UN special envoy in Juba, Sudan on February 29, 2008.  LRA deputy leader, Okot Odhiambo, and eight other individuals were killed in clashes between LRA factions on April 14, 2008.  The president of the UN Security Council condemned the LRA on October 21, 2008.  LRA leader Joseph Kony refused to sign a peace agreement with the government by the deadline of November 29, 2008.

Conflict Phase (December 14, 2008-present):  Some 300 Ugandan government troops, along with soldiers from the DRC and South Sudan, launched a military offensive (“Operation Lighting Thunder”) against LRA rebel bases located in the Garamba region of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo on December 14, 2008.  On December 22, 2008, the president of the UN Security Council condemned the failure of Joseph Kony to signed the peace agreement.  The president of the UN Security Council condemned the LRA on January 16, 2009.  Government troops began withdrawing from the DRC on March 15, 2009.  Former President Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique ended his efforts as UN Special Envoy for the LRA insurgency in Uganda on June 30, 2009.  Government policemen clashed with rioters in Kampala on September 10-13, 2009, resulting in the deaths of at least 21 individuals.  Charles Arop, a senior LRA commander, surrendered to Ugandan government troops in the town of Djabir in the DRC on November 5, 2009.  Bok Abudema, a senior LRA commander, was killed by Ugandan government troops in the Central African Republic on January 1, 2010.  Some 74 individuals, including at least 60 Ugandans, were killed by Somali militant suicide bombers in Kampala on July 12, 2010.  The Ugandan Constitutional Court dismissed treason charges against opposition leader Kizza Besigye and ten other individuals on October 12, 2010.  Legislative elections were held on February 18, 2011, and the National Resistance Movement (NRM) won 263 out of 375 seats in the National Assembly.  The Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) won 34 seats in the National Assembly.  President Yoweri Museveni of the NRM was re-elected with 68 percent of the vote on February 18, 2011, and he was sworn in for a fourth term on May 12, 2011.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent thirteen observers and five staff members led by Dame Billie Miller of Barbados to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from February 10 to February 24, 2011.  The African Union (AU) sent 29 observers led by Hon. Gitobu Imanyara of Kenya to monitor the legislative and presidential elections beginning on February 14, 2011.  The European Union (EU) sent seven election experts, 34 long-term observers, and 68 short-term observers from 28 countries to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from January 15 to March 10, 2011.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), jointly with the East African Community (EAC) and Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), sent 70 observers from 14 countries led by Simbi Mubako of Zimbabwe (COMESA) to monitor the legislative and presidential elections beginning on February 12, 2011.  Opposition leader Kizza Besigye was arrested by government policemen on April 28, 2011.  At least two individuals were killed in riots in Kampala on April 28-29, 2011.  Some 100 U.S. military advisers were deployed in Uganda to assist in combating remaining elements of the LRA in the central African region beginning on October 12, 2011.  The African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council established the Regional Cooperation Initiative for the Elimination of the Lord’s Resistance Army (RCI-LRA) on November 22, 2011.  Francisco Caetano José Madeira of Mozambique was appointed as AU Special Envoy to Uganda on November 23, 2011.  On August 9, 2013, the AU launched the military component of the RCI-LRA, the Regional Task Force (RTF), consisting of 5,000 troops from Uganda, South Sudan, Central African Republic, and the DRC.  The RTF of the RCI-LRA was commanded by Colonel Dick Prit Olum of Ugandan with the task of combating the LRA in the region (“Operation Monsoon”).  AU RTF troops captured Caesar Acellam, a leader of the LRA, in Central African Republic on May 15, 2012.  The president of the UN Security Council condemned the LRA on June 29, 2012.  The president of the UN Security Council condemned the LRA and called for an immediate end to the violence in Uganda on May 29, 2013.  US Special Forces transported some 20 Ugandan government troops serving with the AU RTF into Central African Republic on November 22, 2013.  Within one week, Ugandan government troops killed between five and ten LRA rebels, including senior LRA commander Colonel Samuel Kangul.  The president of the UN Security Council condemned the LRA on November 25, 2013.  Nineteen LRA rebels surrendered to AU RTF troops in the Central African Republic on December 6, 2013.

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Selected Bibliography

Kasfir, Nelson. 2005. "Guerrillas and Civilian Participation: The National Resistance Army in Uganda, 1981-1986," The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 43 (2), pp. 271-296.

Omara-Otunnu, Amii. 1987. Politics and the Military in Uganda, 1890-1985. London: Macmillan Press.

Tindigarukayo, Jimmy K. 1988. "Uganda, 1979-1985: Leadership in Transition." Journal of Modern African Studies 26 (no.4): 607-622.