27. Togo (1960-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (April 27, 1960-November 30, 1961):  Togo formally achieved its independence from United Nations trusteeship under French administration on April 27, 1960.  Sylvanus Olympio of the Committee of Togolese Unity (Comité de l’Unité Togolaise-CUT) was elected without opposition to a seven-year term as president on April 9, 1961.  Legislative elections were held on April 9, 1961, and the Committee of Togolese Unity (Comité de l’Unité Togolaise-CUT) won 52 out of 52 seats in the National Assembly.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on April 9, 1961.

Crisis Phase (December 1, 1961-March 18, 2010):   The government suppressed a rebellion on December 1-2, 1961.  On January 8, 1962, the government of Togo accused the government of Ghana of having supported the rebellion.  President Olympio survived an attempted assassination in Lomé on January 21, 1962.  President Olympio was killed during a military rebellion led by Emmanuel Bodjolle on January 13, 1963, and an eight-member military junta took control of the government on January 14, 1963.  Nicholas Grunitsky formed a provisional civilian government on January 17, 1963. President Grunitsky abrogated the constitution and dissolved the National Assembly on January 17, 1963.  A new constitution was approved in a national referendum on May 5, 1963.  Nicholas Grunitsky of the Togolese People’s Movement (Mouvement des Personnes Togolaises-MPT) was elected president on May 5, 1963.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion led by Noe Kutuklui, leader of the Congres Unite Togolaise (CUT), in Lomé on November 21, 1966.  President Grunitzky was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. Colonel Étienne Gnassingbé Eyadéma on January 13, 1967. Lt. Colonel Gnassingbé Eyadéma declared a state-of-emergency, suspended the constitution, and banned political parties. Lt. Colonel Gnassingbé Eyadéma declared himself president on April 14, 1967. President Gnassingbé Eyadéma imposed a one-party political system on November 29, 1969. The only legal political party was the Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT).  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma was re-elected without opposition in a national referendum on January 13, 1972. President Gnassingbé Eyadéma issued a new constitution, which was approved in a referendum on December 30, 1979.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma was re-elected without opposition on December 30, 1979.  Legislative elections were held on December 30, 1979, and the Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT) won 67 out of 67 seats in the National Assembly.  The government issued a warrant for the arrest of Gilchrest Olympio on July 13, 1979.  The Togolese Movement for Democracy (Mouvement Togolais pour la Democratie-MTD) was established by Gilchrest Olympio in Paris in opposition to the government of President Eyadema in February 1979.  Legislative elections were held on March 24, 1985, and the Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT) won 77 out of 77 seats in the National Assembly.  The Association of African Jurists (AAJ) conducted a fact-finding mission (Cameroon, Guinea, Morocco, Senegal) to investigate allegations of human rights abuses on December 18-23, 1985. Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses on June 16, 1986.  Members of Togolese Movement for Democracy (Mouvement Togolais pour la Democratie-MTD) rebelled against the government of President Gnassingbé Eyadéma in Lomé on September 23-24, 1986, resulting in the deaths of at least 26 individuals. The government of Togo accused the governments of Ghana and Burkina Faso of involvement in the rebellion, and requested French military assistance on September 25, 1986. President Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire expressed support for the government on September 25, 1986.  The French government deployed 250 paratroopers in support of the government of Togo, and Zairean government deployed 350 troops in support of the government of Togo on September 26, 1986.  President Babangida of Nigeria, president of the Economic Communist of West African States (ECOWAS), expressed support for the government. President Ronald Reagan of the U.S. expressed support for the government.  The Chinese government expressed support for the government on October 4, 1986.  French and Zairean troops were withdrawn on October 5, 1986.  Gilchrest Olympio and twelve other individuals were convicted and sentenced to death for their involvement in the rebellion on December 20, 1986.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma was re-elected without opposition on December 21, 1986.  Legislative elections were held on March 4, 1990, and the Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT) won 77 out of 77 seats in the National Assembly.  Opponents of the government demonstrated against the government in Lomé on October 5, 1990, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. The Alliance of Togolese Democrats (Alliance des Democrats Togolais-ADT) was established on December 13, 1990.  Opposition political parties established the Front of Associations for Renewal (FAR) headed by Yao Agboyi-Bor on March 14, 1991.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma legalized opposition political parties on April 12, 1991.  A national conference convened in Lomé from July 8 to August 28, 1991.  The national conference dissolved the National Assembly on July 16, 1991, and elected Joseph Kokou Koffigoh as prime minister on August 27, 1991.  The government suppressed three military rebellions between October 1 and November 28, 1991, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 individuals.  The transitional government (High Council of the Republic-HCR) headed by Prime Minister Joseph Kokou Koffigoh dissolved President Gnassingbé Eyadéma’s Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT) on November 26, 1991.  Prime Minister Koffigoh requested military assistance from France on November 28, 1991, and the French government deployed 300 troops to neighboring Benin on November 29, 1991.  Prime Minister Koffigoh was seized by rebel soldiers during an attack on his residence on December 3, 1991, resulting in the deaths of 17 individuals. President Gnassingbé Eyadéma permitted Joseph Kokou Koffigoh to form a provisional government as prime minister on December 30, 1991.  Gilchrist Olympio, leader of the Union of Forces for Change (Union des Forces du Changement-UFC), survived an assassination attempt in the Assoli region on May 5, 1992, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.  Tavio Amorin, leader of the Pan-Africanist Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste Panafricain-PSP) and a member of the High Council of the Republic-HCR, died as a result of a armed attack by government police on July 29, 1992.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on September 27, 1992. The Togolese Union for Democracy (UTD) and other opposition political parties formed the Patriotic Front (PF) in October 1992. The U.S. government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the government of Togo in November 1992. President Gnassingbé Eyadéma dismissed Prime Minister Joseph Kokou Koffigoh on January 13, 1993, but re-appointed him to the position on January 18, 1993.  Government troops and anti-opposition demonstrators clashed in Lomé on January 25-30, 1993, resulting in the deaths of thirty-one civilians and four government soldiers.  Some 300,000 individuals fled as refugees to Ghana and Benin.  The German government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of development assistance) against the government on February 4, 1993, and the French government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of development assistance) against the government on February 11, 1993.  France and Germany mediated negotiations between representatives of the government and opposition groups in Colmar, France beginning on February 8-9, 1993.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma survived an attempted assassination by armed opponents on March 25, 1993, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Some 20 individuals were subsequently executed for their involvement in the assassination attempt.  Government troops killed three opposition demonstrators in Cinkasse on April 15, 1993.  Prime Minister Joseph Kokou Koffigoh formed the Coordination of New Forces (Coordination des Forces Nouvelles-CFN) on June 11, 1993.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, representing the Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT), was re-elected with 96 percent of the vote on August 25, 1993.  Opposition political parties had boycotted the presidential election.  The governments of France and Burkina Faso sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  Some 20 individuals were killed by government troops throughout the country on August 24-27, 1993.  The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against Togo in September 1993.  The government suppressed a rebellion in Lomé on January 5-7, 1994, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals.  The French government resumed economic assistance to the government of Togo in 1994.  On January 14, 1994, Amnesty International (AI) alleged that 48 individuals had been executed for their involvement in the rebellion.  Legislative elections were held on February 6-20, 1994.  The Patriotic Front (PF), including the Action Committee for Renewal (Comité d’Action pour la Renouveau-CAR), won 43 out of 81 seats in the National Assembly.  The Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT) won 35 seats in the National Assembly.   The International Monitoring Committee (IMC), an ad hoc group of personnel representing the Association of African Lawyers (AAL), monitored the legislative elections.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Lomé on February 14, 1994.  Edem Kodjo, leader of the Togolese Union for Democracy (UTD), was named prime minister on April 22, 1994.  The Action Committee for Renewal (Comite d’Action pour le Renouveau -CAR) announced a boycott of the National Assembly on November 7, 1994.  The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) established a mission to provide repatriation assistance to 100,000 Togolese refugees in Ghana and Benin from April 26, 1996 to July 1997.  Prime Minister Kodjo resigned on August 19, 1996, and Kwassi Klutse formed a government as prime minister on August 27, 1996.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent a four-member pre-election assessment delegation to Togo on June 4-11, 1998.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma was re-elected with 52 percent of the vote on June 21, 1998.  The European Union (EU) sent 40 observers to monitor the presidential election, and reported that there were flaws in the electoral process on June 25, 1998.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent nine observers from eight countries headed by Isaac Nguema of Gabon to monitor the presidential election from June 15 to June 27, 1998.  The Center for Contemporary Diplomacy (CCD), a non-government organization based in New York, sent eleven observers to monitor the president election.  Opposition presidential candidate, Gilchrist Olympio, claimed victory in the presidential election and called for demonstrations against the government.  Several individuals were killed in political violence after the elections.  President Jerry Rawlings of Ghana offered to mediate negotiations between the parties.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma invited opposition political parties to join a government of national unity in August 1998, but the political parties rejected the offer.  President Eyadema met with opposition leaders to discuss national reconciliation in November 1998.  The European Union (EU) renewed economic sanctions against the government of Togo on December 14, 1998.  Legislative elections were held on March 7 and March 21, 1999, and the Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT) won 79 out of 81 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition political parties boycotted the legislative elections.  Prime Minister Klutse resigned on April 17, 1999.  Mustapha Niasse of Senegal, representing the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on May 4, 1999.  French, German, and EU representatives attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on May 4, 1999.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma appointed Koffi Eugene Adoboli as prime minister on May 22, 1999.  Negotiations between representatives of the Togo government and opposition groups convened in Paris on June 9, 1999.  Four opposition political parties, including the Togolese Union for Democracy (UTD), merged to form the Pan-African Patriotic Convergence (PAPC) on August 16, 1999.  Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) appointed Ide Oumarou of Niger to mediate negotiations between the parties on April 18, 2000.  On June 7, 2000, the United Nations (UN) and Organization for African Unity (OAU) established a joint three-member commission of inquiry (Brazil, Chad, Mauritania) headed by Mahamat Hassan Abakar of Chad to investigate allegations of government killings of Togolese in June 1998.  Prime Minister Eugene Koffi Adoboli resigned on August 27, 2000, and President Gnassingbé Eyadéma appointed Gabriel Messan Agbeyome Kodjo as prime minister on August 29, 2000.  The U.S. government resumed military assistance to the government of Togo in 2001.  The UN-OAU issued a report on February 23, 2001.  France, Germany, and the EU ended their mediation efforts on May 31, 2002.  Legislative elections were held on October 27, 2002, and the Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT) won 72 out of 81 seats in the National Assembly.  Several opposition political parties, including the Union of Forces for Change (Union des Forces du Changement-UFC) headed by Gilchrist Olympio, boycotted the elections.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma was re-elected with 58 percent of the vote on June 1, 2003, and he was inaugurated on June 20, 2003.  President Gnassingbé Eyadéma died of a heart attack in Tunisia on February 5, 2005, and President Eyadema’s son, Faure Gnassingbé, was named as president by the Togolese military.  President Jacques Chirac of France and the African Union (AU) condemned the “military coup” in Togo on February 6, 2005.  The Nigerian government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) and economic sanctions (flight ban) against the government of Togo on February 11, 2005.  Government troops clashed with anti-government demonstrators in Lomé on February 14, 2005, resulting in the deaths of at least three individuals.  The ECOWAS imposed military sanctions (arms embargo),  economic sanctions (travel ban on government leaders), and diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Togo on February 19, 2005.  President Faure Gnassingbé resigned on February 25, 2005, and El-Hadj Bonfoh Abass, president of the National Assembly, was appointed as interim president.  The African Union (AU) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government of Togo on February 25, 2005.  The ECOWAS lifted military sanctions, economic sanctions, and diplomatic sanctions against the government of Togo on February 25, 2005.  Nigeria lifted diplomatic sanctions and economic sanctions against the government of Togo on March 10, 2005.  Seven individuals were killed in political violence in Lomé on April 16, 2005.  Faure Gnassingbé was elected president with 60 percent of the vote on April 24, 2005, and he was inaugurated as president on May 3, 2005.  Government troops killed nine individuals in the town of Aného on April 26-27, 2005.  Opposition leader, Emmanuel Bob-Akitani, disputed the results of the presidential election and declared himself to be the winner.  The ECOWAS sent 120 observers to monitor the presidential election.  Some 500 individuals were killed, and some 38,000 individuals fled Togo as a result of post-election violence.  The ECOWAS began mediation between the government and opposition political parties on April 30, 2005.  The African Union (AU) lifted diplomatic sanctions and military sanctions against the government of Togo on May 27, 2005.  President Faure Gnassingbé appointed opposition leader, Edem Kodjo, as prime minister on June 9, 2005.  President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso, representing the ECOWAS, mediated negotiations between representatives of the government and opposition political parties beginning on August 10, 2006.  Government and opposition political parties signed the ECOWAS-mediated Global Political Agreement in Lomé on August 21, 2006.  The GPA provided for the establishment of two commissions that will be responsible for establishing the truth on crimes and human rights violations following the 2005 presidential election, and for promoting political reconciliation in Togo.  In order to support the political reconciliation process in Togo, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) established an office in Lomé in November 2006.  Legislative elections were held on October 14, 2007, and the Rally for the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT) won 50 out of 81 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union of Forces for Change (Union des Forces du Changement-UFC) won 27 seats in the National Assembly.  The European Union (EU) sent 18 long-term observers and 62 short-term observers led by Fiona Hall from Britain to monitor the legislative elections from September 8 to November 3, 2007.  The European Parliament (EP) sent six observers and three staff members led by Marie-Arlette Carlotti of France to monitor the legislative elections from October 11 to October 16, 2007.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) and the African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 152 observers to monitor the legislative elections on October 2, 2007.  President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso, representing the ECOWAS, mediated negotiations between President Faure Gnassingbé and Gilchrist Olympio, leader of the Union of Forces for Change (Union des Forces du Changement-UFC), in Ouagadougou, Burkina  Faso on November 2, 2007.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on November 27, 2007.  Government security forces raided the home of former Defense Minister Kpatcha Gnassingbé, the half-brother of President Faure Gnassingbé, on April 14, 2009, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  The government accused Kpatcha Gnassingbé of plotting a coup against President Faure Gnassingbé.  On February 18, 2010, the ECOWAS deployed 146 military observers from 13 member-states led by Colonel Siaka Sangare of Mali to assist Togolese police in providing security for and preventing violence during the upcoming presidential election.  President Faure Gnassingbé, representing the Rally for the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais-RPT), was re-elected with 61 percent of the vote on March 4, 2010.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 150 election observers led by Dr. Babacar N’diaye from Senegal to monitor the presidential election from February 26 to March 5, 2010.  The European Union (EU) sent 30 long-term observers and 100 short-term observers led by José Manuel García-Margallo of Spain to monitor the presidential elections from January 19 to March 23, 2010.  The African Union (AU), Economic and Monetary Union of West Africa (Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine-UEMOA), Community of Sahel-Saharan States (Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens-CEN-SAD), and Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential election. Opposition political parties claimed election fraud.  On March 18, 2010, the Constitutional Court confirmed the re-election of President Faure Gnassingbé in the March 4th presidential election.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 19, 2010-present):  The government  banned political demonstrations on March 26, 2010.  Gilchrest Olympio, leader of the Union of Forces for Change (Union des Forces du Changement-UFC), agreed to join a coalition government on May 27, 2010.  On September 1, 2010, former Defense Minister Kpatcha Gnassingbé, who was arrested by government security forces in April 2010, went on trial in the Supreme Court for plotting to overthrow President Faure Gnassingbé.  Former Defense Minister Kpatcha Gnassingbé was sentenced by the Supreme Court to 20 years in prison on September 15, 2011.  Ten government policemen and 17 protesters were injured in demonstrations against electoral reforms in Lomé on June 12-14, 2012.  Legislative elections were held on July 25, 2013, and the Union for the Republic (Union pour la République-UR) won 62 out of 91 seats in the National Assembly.  The Save Togo Collective (Collectif Sauvons le Togo-CST) won 19 seats in the National Assembly.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 80 observers led by Ambassador Leopold Ouédraogo of Burkina Faso to monitor the legislative elections.  The African Union (AU) sent 32 observers led by Kabine Komara of Guinea to monitor the legislative elections from July 16 to July 31, 2013.

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