39. Tanzania (1961-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (December 6, 1961-January 11, 1964): Tanganyika formally achieved its independence from United Nations trusteeship under British administration and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) on December 9, 1961. On December 9, 1962, Tanganyika became a republic with Julius Nyerere of the National Union Party (NUP) as president.  The islands of Zanzibar (Unguja or Zanzibar and Pemba) were granted self-government by the British government on June 24, 1963, and Sheikh Mohammed Shamte Hamadi formed a government as prime minister on June 25, 1963.  Zanzibar formally achieved their independence from Britain on December 10, 1963.

Crisis Phase (January 12, 1964-September 26, 1964):  Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah Al Said and Prime Minister Shamte Hamadi of Zanzibar were overthrown in a rebellion led by John Okello of the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) on January 12, 1964.  On January 14, 1964, a revolutionary council was established in Zanzibar with Abeid Amani Karume as president and Abdullah Kassim Hanga as prime minister of the People’s Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba.  The governments of Kenya and Uganda provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the revolutionary council in Zanzibar on January 14, 1964.  The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the revolutionary council in Zanzibar on January 14, 1964.  Several thousand Arabs and Asians (estimates range from 3,000 to 13,000) were killed and tens of thousands of individuals were displaced within or exiled from the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar on January 18-20, 1964.   Tanganyikan government troops mutinied against the government near Dar-es-Salaam and Dodoma on January 19-21, 1964, resulting in the deaths of 17 individuals.  The British government deployed the naval ships H.M.S. Rhyl and H.M.S. Centaur and some 2,000 troops in the region on January 21, 1964.  President Nyerere requested the deployment of British troops on January 21, 1964, and some 600 British troops were deployed in the country beginning on January 24, 1964.  British troops were withdrawn on March 30, 1964, and some 500 Nigerian peacekeeping troops were deployed in the country on March 31, 1964. Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar (Tanzania) and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on April 26, 1964.  Nigerian peacekeeping troops withdrew from the country on September 26, 1964.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 27, 1964-October 21, 1995):  Tanzania adopted an interim constitution on July 5, 1965, which established one-party political systems on the mainland of Tanzania and Zanzibar.  The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) controlled the mainland, and the Zanzibar Afro-Shizari Party (ZASP) controlled Zanzibar.  President Julius Nyerere dissolved the National Assembly on July 10, 1965.  Legislative elections were held in Tanzania on September 21-26, 1965, and TANU won 101 out of 101 contested seats in the National Assembly.  President Nyerere was approved for a five-year term in a plebiscite on September 30, 1965.  Legislative elections were held in Tanzania on October 31, 1970, and TANU won 120 out of 120 seats in the National Assembly.  President Nyerere was re-elected without opposition to a third term on October 31, 1970.  Shieikh Abeid Amani Karume, the first vice-president of the country, was assassinated by military personnel on April 7, 1972.  Four of the military personnel were killed during the assassination attempt, and several individuals were arrested following the assassination. TANU and ZASP merged to form the Revolutionary Party of Tanzania (Chama Cha Mpanduzi-CCM) on February 5, 1977. The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on April 25, 1977, which provided the CCM with the dominant role in the Tanzanian political system.  Legislative elections were held on October 26, 1980, and the CCM won 264 out of 264 seats in the National Assembly.  President Nyerere was re-elected without opposition on October 26, 1980, and President Aboud Jumbe of Zanzibar was confirmed in office on October 26, 1980. Prime Minister Edward Sokoine announced his retirement on November 5, 1980, and Cleopa David Msuya formed a government as prime minister on November 7, 1980. Edward Sokoine formed a government as prime minister on February 24, 1983. Prime Minister Sokoine was killed in an automobile accident on April 12, 1984, and Salim Ahmed Salim was appointed as prime minister on April 24, 1984.  Several constitutional amendments went into effect on March 15, 1984.  Idris Abdul Wakil was elected president of Zanzibar (second vice-president of Tanzania) without opposition on October 13, 1985.  Legislative elections were held in Tanzania on October 27, 1985, and the CCM won 156 out of 156 contested seats in the National Assembly.  Ali Hassas Mwinyi of the CCM was elected president of Tanzania without opposition on October 27, 1985, and he was inaugurated as president on November 5, 1985.  Joseph Warioba was appointed as prime minister on November 6, 1985. On December 28, 1985, Hatty Maghee and eight military personnel were convicted and sentenced to life-imprisonment for plotting to assassinate former President Nyerere in 1983.  President Wakil of Zanzibar suspended the government of Prime Minister Seif Sharif Hamadi on January 23, 1988, and appointed Omar Ali Juma as prime minister on January 26, 1988. President Mwinyi of Tanzania replaced Julius Nyerere as chairman of the CCM on August 17, 1990.  Salmin Amour was elected president of Zanzibar on October 21, 1990.  Legislative elections were held in Tanzania on October 28, 1990, and the CCM won 168 out of 168 contested seats in the National Assembly.  President Mwinyi was re-elected without opposition on October 28, 1990. President Mwinyi appointed John Malecela as prime minister on November 8, 1990.  The National Assembly approved legislation legalizing opposition political parties on May 7, 1992, and President Mwinyi signed the legislation on June 17, 1992.  Christopher Mtikila, leader of the Democratic Party (DP), was arrested by government police and charged with sedition on January 25, 1993.  Government police killed a supporter of the Civic United Front (CUF) on the island of Pemba on January 31, 1993.  On April 29, 1993, the government banned the Islamic group Balukta and arrested its leader Sheikh Yahya Hussein.  Christopher Mtikila, leader of the Democratic Party (DP), was released from police custody on September 24, 1993.  President Mwinyi dissolved the National Assembly on December 4, 1994, and appointed Cleopa Msuya as prime minister on December 5, 1994.  Some 20 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in Ngorongoro District between August 1 and September 30, 1995.

Crisis Phase (October 22, 1995-October 10, 2001):  Presidential and legislative elections were held in Zanzibar on October 22, 1995, and President Amour was re-elected president with 50 percent of the vote. The Revolutionary Party of Tanzania (Chama Cha Mpanduzi-CCM) won 26 out of 50 contested seats in the Zanzibar House of Representatives. The Civic United Front (CUF), which won 24 seats in the Zanzibar House of Representatives, claimed election fraud.  Some 140 international personnel observed the Zanzibar elections on October 20-26, 1995. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent observers to monitor the Zanzibar elections, and the OAU mission reported that the elections had been free and fair.  Government police clashed with protesters in Zanzibar on October 24, 1995.  The governments of Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Zanzibar government in November 1995.  Legislative elections were held in Tanzania on October 22 and October 29, 1995, but the elections were nullified by the National Election Commission (NEC) as a result of numerous problems.  Legislative elections were held in Tanzania on November 19, 1995, and the CCM won 186 out of 232 contested seats in the National Assembly. The CUF won 24 contested seats in the National Assembly.  Benjamin Mkapa of the CCM was elected president with 62 percent of the vote on November 19, 1995. The United Nations provided electoral assistance and coordinated some 405 election observers beginning in August 1995.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  Benjamin Mkapa was inaugurated as president on November 23, 1995.  President Mkapa appointed Frederick Tulway Sumaye as prime minister on November 28, 1995.  The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Zanzibar government in 1996.  The 24 members of the CUF boycotted the opening session of Zanzibar’s parliament on February 4, 1996.  Moses Anafu, the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) special envoy to Zanzibar, began mediation in the political crisis in Zanzibar beginning in January 1998.  At least two individuals were killed in clashes between government security forces and Islamic militants in Dar es Salaam on February 13, 1998.  Eleven individuals were killed in a bombing near the U.S. Embassy in Dar es Salaam on August 7, 1998.  Representatives of the Zanzibar government and the CUF signed a CON-mediated agreement on June 9, 1999.  Members of the CUF officially ended their boycott of the Zanzibar parliament on June 23, 1999.  Legislative elections were held in Tanzania on October 29 and November 5, 2000, and the CCM won 202 out of 231 elective seats in the National Assembly.  The CUF won 17 seats in the National Assembly.   Benjamin Mkapa of the CCM was re-elected as president of Tanzania with 62 percent of the vote on October 29, 2000.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Parliamentary Forum sent 30 observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 15 to November 4, 2000. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent 30 observers headed by Alex Ekwueme of Nigeria to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 19 to November 5, 2000.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent twelve observers headed by former Foreign Minister Gaositwe Chiepe of Botswana to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on October 20, 2000. The European Union (EU) sent six long-term observers and 70 short-term observers headed by Brian Pridham of Britain to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from July to mid-November 2000.  Government police and supporters of the Civic United Front (CUF) clashed in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar on January 26-29, 2001, resulting in the deaths of some 40 individuals. Some 2,000 supporters of the CUF fled as refugees to Kenya.  On October 10, 2001, representatives of the CUF and CCM signed an agreement providing for reform of the Zanzibar Electoral Commission, an independent inquiry into the January 2001 election violence, and creation of a Joint Presidential Supervisory Commission (JPSC) to oversee implementation of reforms.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 11, 2001-present):  The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) provided repatriation assistance to refugees in Kenya beginning on November 6, 2001.  Two individuals were killed in religious riots in Dar es Salaam on February 13, 2002.  Elections for vacant parliamentary seats were held in Zanzibar on May 18, 2003, and the CUF won 11 out of 17 vacant seats in the Zanzibar House of Representations and 15 out of 15 vacant seats in the Tanzanian National Assembly.  The Revolutionary Party of Tanzania (Chama Cha Mpanduzi-CCM) won six of the vacant seats in the Zanzibar House of Representatives.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent five observers to monitor the Zanzibar elections from May 13 to May 23, 2003. Government police clashed with CUF supporters in Zanzibar on October 9, 2005, resulting in injuries to 17 individuals.  The European Union (EU) provided electoral assistance to the Tanzanian government from October 22 to November 15, 2005.  Amani Abeid Karume of the CCM was re-elected as president of Zanzibar with 53 percent of the vote on October 30, 2005.  Opposition candidate, Seif Hamad,  claimed election fraud.  Legislative elections were held in Zanzibar on October 30, 2005, and the CCM won 30 out of 50 seats in the House of Representatives.  The CUF won 19 seats in the House of Representatives.  The African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the Zanzibar elections.  The SADC Parliamentary Forum sent 22 observers headed by John Pandeni of Namibia to monitor the Zanzibar elections from October 24 to November 4, 2005.  The East African Community (EAC) sent eight observers to monitor the Zanzibar elections from October 27 to November 1, 2005.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent eleven observers headed by Guido de Marco from Malta to monitor the Zanzibar elections from October 6 to November 6, 2005.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent observers headed by Anastasia Msosa of Malawi to monitor the Zanzibar elections from October 19 to November 1, 2005.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 20 observers to monitor the Zanzibar elections from October 24 to November 1, 2005.  The Norwegian Resource Bank for Democracy and Human Rights (NORDEM) sent six observers to monitor the Zanzibar elections from October 6 to November 9, 2005.  Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete of the CCM was elected president of Tanzania with 80 percent of the vote on December 14, 2005, and he was inaugurated as president on December 21, 2005.  Legislative elections in Tanzania were held on December 14, 2005, and the CCM won 206 out of 232 contested seats in the National Assembly.  The CUF won 19 contested seats in the National Assembly.  The African Union (AU) sent observers headed by Baleka Mbete of South Africa to monitor the Tanzanian elections.  The SADC Parliamentary Forum sent observers to monitor the Tanzanian elections from November 30 to December 15, 2005.  The EAC sent nine observers to monitor the Tanzanian elections from December 11 to December 16, 2005.  The EISA sent 27 observers to monitor the elections in Zanzibar and Tanzania from October 5 to December 14, 2005.  Prime Minister Edward Lowassa resigned as a result of a corruption scandal on February 7, 2008, and President Jakaya Kikwete appointed Mizengo Pinda as prime minister on February 8, 2008.  A referendum on a proposal to establish a national unity government was held in Zanzibar on July 31, 2010.  The proposal was supported by 66 percent of the voters in the referendum.  Legislative elections were held in Zanzibar on October 31, 2010, and the CCM won 28 out of 50 seats in the House of Representatives.  The CUF won 22 seats in the House of Representatives.  Ali Mohamed Shein of the CCM was elected president of Zanzibar with 50 percent of the vote.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent ten observers from nine countries to monitor the presidential and legislative elections in Zanzibar from October 25 to November 2, 2010.  Legislative elections were held in Tanzania on October 31, 2010, and the CCM won 186 out of elective 239 seats in the National Assembly.  The CUF won 24 seats in the National Assembly.  President Jakaya Kilwete of the CCM was re-elected with 63 percent of the vote.  The African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections in Tanzania from October 26 to November 2, 2010.  The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) sent 97 observers led by Foreign Minister Kabinga Pande of Zambia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections in Tanzania from October 18 to November 1, 2010.  The SADC Electoral Commissions Forum (ECF) sent 24 observers led by Shaboyo Motsamai of Botswana to monitor the presidential and legislative elections in Tanzania from October 22 to November 2, 2010.  The East African Community (EAC) sent 15 observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections in Tanzania from October 24 to November 1, 2010.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 15 observers and six staff members led by Paul East of New Zealand to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 24 to November 2, 2010.  The European Union (EU) sent seven election experts, 22 long-term observers, and 42 short-term observers from 30  countries to monitor the presidential and legislative elections in Tanzania from September 28 to November 28, 2010.  Two individuals were killed by government police during an anti-government protest in Arusha on January 5, 2011.  On October 17, 2012, Sheikh Ponda Issa Ponda, an Islamic cleric, was arrested by government police following the burning of five Christian churches the previous week.  Three individuals were killed in the bombing of a Roman Catholic Church near Arusha on May 5, 2013.  Eight individuals were arrested following the church bombing.

[Sources: Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), April 1-30, 1977; African Union (AU) press release, November 2, 2010; Associated Press (AP), June 9, 1999, January 30, 2001; Banks and Muller, 1998, 902-907; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), February 14, 1998, August 7, 1998, August 11, 1998, June 9, 1999, October 30, 2000, November 1, 2000, January 25, 2001, January 27, 2001, January 29, 2001, February 1, 2001, March 9, 2001, April 7, 2001, October 11, 2001, January 18, 2002, February 14, 2002, September 26, 2005, October 10, 2005, October 28, 2005, November 1, 2005, December 14, 2005, December 16, 2005, December 17, 2005, December 19, 2005, December 21, 2005, February 7, 2008, February 8, 2008, November 5, 2010, January 6, 2011, October 15, 2012, October 17, 2012, May 6, 2013; Commonwealth of Nations (CON) press release, May 4, 1999, June 8, 1999, September 29, 2000, October 16, 2000, May 12, 2003, May 30, 2003, October 21, 2010; Commonwealth of Nations (CON) report, October 30, 2005; Degenhardt, 1988, 364; East African Community (EAC) press release, October 27, 2005, November 1, 2010; East African Community (EAC) report, December 15, 2005; Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) report, December 14, 2005, November 2, 2010; Facts on File, January 9-15, 1964, January 23-29, 1964, April 23-29, 1964, November 12-18, 1970, February 1, 2001; Human Rights Watch (HRW) press release, January 31, 2001; Jessup, 1998, 722-725; Keesing’s Record of World Events, March 21-28, 1964, October 9-16, 1965, January 30, 1981, February 1986, December 1995; Langer, 1972, 1278-1279; National Democratic Institute (NDI) statement, November 1, 2005; New York Times (NYT), November 5, 2010, January 6, 2011, May 6, 2013, June 30, 2013; Panafrican News Agency (PANA), September 27, 2000, October 19, 2000, October 23, 2000, October 30, 2000; Reuters, July 30, 1998, June 24, 1999, September 19, 2000, September 29, 2000, October 20, 2000, November 8, 2000, May 13, 2013; Southern African Development Community (SADC) statement, October 31, 2005, December 15, 2005; Tillema, 1991, 104; United Nations (UN) press release, November 6, 2001.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Austen, Ralph A. 1968. Northwest Tanzania Under German and British Rule. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.

Cameron, Greg. 2002. “Zanzibar’s Turbulent Transition,” Review of African Political Economy, vol. 92, pp. 313-330.

Dumbuya, Peter A. 1995. Tanganyika Under International Mandate 1919-1946. Lanham, MD, New York, and London: University Press of America, Inc.

Iliffe, John. 1969. Tanganyika Under German Rule 1905-1912. London: Cambridge University Press.

Listowel, Judith. 1965. The Making of Tanganyika. London: Chatto & Windus.

Sheriff, Abdul. 2001. “Race and Class in the Politics of Zanzibar,” Afrika Spectrum, vol. 36 (3), pp. 301-318.