1. South Africa (1910-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (May 31, 1910-June 13, 1913):  South Africa formally achieved its independence from Britain on May 31, 1910. General Louis Botha formed a government as prime minister on May 31, 1910.  Parliamentary elections were held on September 15, 1910, and the South African Party (SAP) headed by Louis Botha and James Hertzog won 67 out of 130 seats in the House of Assembly. The Unionist Party (UP) headed by Dr. Leander Jameson won 39 seats in the House of Assembly. General Botha formed a government as prime minister. The parliament convened on November 4, 1910. Prime Minister Botha formed a government as prime minister on December 14, 1912.

Crisis Phase (June 14, 1913-September 14, 1914): The parliament approved the Immigration Act on June 14, 1913, which restricted the immigration and movement of Indians within the country. Indians led by Mohandas Gandhi protested against the discrimination. Prime Minister Botha proclaimed martial law on January 14, 1914 after miners went on strike near Johannesburg. James Hertzog withdrew from the SAP, and established the National Party (NP) in January 1914. Mohandas Gandhi departed for India on July 20, 1914 after achieving concessions from the government concerning the treatment of Indians in the country.  The British government requested that South Africa invade German Southwest Africa in August 1914.

Conflict Phase (September 15, 1914-February 28, 1915):  Afrikaners (Boers) led by General Christiaan De Wet began a rebellion against the government on September 15, 1914.  Prime Minister Botha proclaimed martial law.  The British government offered military assistance to the South African government in September 1914, but South Africa declined the offer in October 1914. General C. F. Beyers, a leader of the Afrikaners, died in a drowning accident on December 8, 1914. Some 30,000 South African troops commanded by Prime Minister Botha and General Jan Christiaan Smuts suppressed the Afrikaner rebellion in February 1915. Some 325 individuals, including 132 government soldiers and 190 rebels, were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (March 1, 1915-June 30, 1924):  Parliamentary elections were held on October 20, 1915, and the South African Party (SAP) won 54 out of 130 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Unionist Party (UP) won 39 seats in the House of Assembly.  Prime Minister Botha died on August 27, 1919, and General Smuts formed a government as prime minister.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 20, 1920, and the National Party (NP) won 44 out of 134 seats in the House of Assembly. The SAP won 41 seats in the House of Assembly.  Prime Minister Smuts formed a coalition government. The SAP and UP merged in November 1920.  Parliamentary elections were held on February 8, 1921, and the SAP won 79 out of 134 seats in the House of Assembly.  The NP won 45 seats in the House of Assembly. Government police and members of an African religious sect headed by Enoch Mgijima clashed in May 1921, resulting in the deaths of 163 Africans.  Coal miners and gold miners went on strike in Johannesburg beginning on January 1, 1922.  Union workers rebelled against the government beginning on February 5, 1922.  Government police and union workers clashed near Boksburg on February 27, 1922, resulting in the deaths of 180 workers and 50 policemen. Prime Minister Smuts declared martial law in Johannesburg on March 10, 1922.  Government troops suppressed the rebellion on March 11-14, 1922, resulting in the deaths of 72 government soldiers and 81 civilians.  Some 4,750 individuals were arrested, and eighteen individuals were sentenced to death for their involvement in the rebellion (although only four of the individuals were actually executed).  Parliamentary elections were held on June 19, 1924, and the coalition of the National Party (NP) and the Labour Party (LP) won 81 seats (63 seats for the NP and 18 seats for the LP) out of 135 seats in the House of Assembly.  The SAP won 53 seats in the House of Assembly.  James Hertzog formed a NP/LP coalition government as prime minister on June 30, 1924.  Some 600 individuals were killed in political violence between March 1915 and June 1924.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 1, 1924-March 20, 1960):  Parliamentary elections were held on June 14, 1929, and the National Party (NP) won 78 out of 148 seats in the House of Assembly.  The South African Party (SAP) won 61 seats in the House of Assembly.  South Africa became one of the original members of the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on December 11, 1931.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 17, 1933, and the NP won 75 out of 150 seats in the House of Assembly.  The SAP won 61 seats in the House of Assembly.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 18, 1938, and the coalition of the NP and SAP won 111 out of 150 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Purified National Party (PNP) led by Dr. Daniel François Malan won 27 seats in the House of Assembly.  Parliamentary elections were held on July 17, 1943, and the United National South African Party (UNSAP) led by Field Marshall Jan Christiaan Smuts won 89 out of 150 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Reunited National Party (RNP) led by Daniel Malan won 43 seats in the House of Assembly.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 26, 1948, and the RNP won 70 out of 150 seats in the House of Assembly.  The UNSAP won 65 seats in the House of Assembly.  Daniel Malan, leader of the RNP, formed a government as prime minister on June 3, 1948.  Prime Minister Daniel Malan advocated a policy of racial segregation (apartheid).  Africans (Zulus) and Indians rioted in Durben on January 13-14, 1949, resulting in the deaths of 87 Africans and 50 Indians. Africans rioted in protest of apartheid in Johannesburg on January 29, 1950. The House of Assembly approved the Separate Representation of Voters Act on May 14, 1950, which provided for the removal of non-whites from the common voters’ roll and their separate representation in parliament. The House of Assembly approved the Population Registration Act on May 16, 1950, which provided for the registration of the population, the racial classification of the population, and the issuance of identity cards. The House of Assembly approved the Group Areas Act on May 31, 1950, which provided for the assignment of separate areas of the country to different races of South Africans. India protested the bad treatment of Indians in South Africa, and referred the matter to the United Nations (UN) secretary-general on July 11, 1950. The House of Assembly approved the Suppression of Communism Act on June 20, 1950, and the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) dissolved itself on June 20, 1950. The Supreme Court overturned the Separate Representation of Voters Act on March 20, 1952. The House of Assembly approved the High Court of Parliament Act on May 15, 1952, which provided for a majority of parliament to overrule any judgment of the Supreme Court concerning legislation approved by parliament.  The African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) launched a civil disobedience campaign in protest of the apartheid policies of the government beginning on June 26, 1952.  The High Court of the Parliament upheld the validity of the Separate Representation of Voters Act on August 27, 1952. The Supreme Court declared invalid the High Court of Parliament Act on August 29, 1952. Africans rioted in New Brighton township in Port Elizabeth on October 18, 1952, resulting in the deaths of 12 individuals. The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court dismissed the government’s appeal of the Supreme Court’s invalidation of the High Court of Parliament Act on November 13, 1952. The South African parliament approved legislation on February 24, 1953, which gave Prime Minister Daniel Malan authority to enforce the apartheid laws. The UN General Assembly established a good offices commission for South Africa in December 1952. Parliamentary elections were held on April 15, 1953, and the National Party (NP) won 94 out of 156 seats in the House of Assembly.  The United Party (UP) won 57 seats in the House of Assembly.  Prime Minister Malan retired on October 29, 1954, and Johannes Strydom formed a government as prime minister on November 30, 1954. The UN good office commission was disbanded on May 31, 1955. The UN General Assembly condemned the apartheid policies of the South African government on October 12, 1955.  The parliament re-approved the Separate Representation of Voters Act with a two-thirds majority vote in February 1956. The government ordered some 100,000 non-whites to leave their homes in Johannesburg within a year on August 25, 1956.  The ANC called for a stay-at-home to protest against Apartheid on June 26, 1957.  Parliamentary elections were held on April 16, 1958, and the NP won 103 out of 156 seats in the House of Assembly.  The UP won 53 seats in the House of Assembly.  Prime Minister Strydom died on August 24, 1958, and Hendrik Verwoerd formed a government as prime minister on September 3, 1958. The Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC) was established in opposition to the government in April 1959. The parliament approved the Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act on June 15, 1959, which provided for the abolition of African representation in the parliament and the establishment of Bantu national units (Bantustans) within the Union of South Africa.

Crisis Phase (March 21, 1960-May 14, 1999):  Government police fired on demonstrators in Sharpsville township and Langa on March 21, 1960, resulting in the deaths of 72 individuals. African workers began a strike in Cape Town and Vereeniging, Transvaal beginning on March 22, 1960.  The government declared a state-of-emergency on March 30, 1960, resulting in the arrest and detention of 1,910 individuals.  The parliament approved the Unlawful Organizations Act on April 5, 1960, which provided the government with the authority to outlaw organizations opposed to government policies. The government banned the ANC and PAC on April 8, 1960. Prime Minister Verwoerd survived an attempted assassination in Johannesburg on April 9, 1960. The Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act went into effect on June 30, 1960. The government lifted the state-of-emergency on August 31, 1960.  Voters approved the establishment of a republic in a referendum on October 5, 1960.  The governments of Nigeria and Sudan imposed economic sanctions (ban on imports) against the South African government in 1960.  The UN General Assembly condemned the apartheid policies of the government on April 13, 1961.  The government proclaimed the Republic of South Africa and withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on May 31, 1961. Governor-General Charles Robert Swart had been elected “State President” (head of state in the South African parliamentary system) by the parliament on May 18, 1961, and he formally took office as State President on May 31, 1961.  Legislative elections were held on October 8, 1961, and the NP won 105 out of 156 seats in the House of Assembly.  The UP won 49 seats in the House of Assembly.  The governments of the Soviet Union, China, Ethiopia, and Ghana imposed economic sanctions (ban on imports) against the South African government in 1961.  Nelson Mandela, secretary-general of the ANC, was arrested for subversion on August 16, 1962, and he was sentenced to five years imprisonment on November 7, 1962. The UN General Assembly recommended diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations), economic sanctions (trade embargo), and military sanctions (arms and ammunition embargo) against the government on November 6, 1962. Africans and government police clashed on November 22, 1962, resulting in the deaths of six Africans.  Africans and government police clashed in Queenstown and Qamata on December 12, 1962, resulting in the deaths of 13 Africans and one government policeman.  Six Africans were sentenced to death in Umtata for murder on February 7, 1963.  The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (voluntary arms embargo) against the government on August 7, 1963.  The UN Security Council condemned the government’s apartheid policies on December 4, 1963, and established a five-member fact-finding commission (Britain, Ghana, Morocco, Sweden, Yugoslavia) on January 27, 1964.  Three Africans were sentenced to death for murder on March 16, 1964, and the individuals were executed in Pretoria on November 6, 1964. The UN fact-finding commission issued a report to the UN secretary-general on April 20, 1964.  Nelson Mandela and seven other African leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment on June 12, 1964. The UN Security Council condemned the government’s apartheid policies in June 1964.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) foreign ministers condemned the government’s apartheid policies on July 15, 1964.  The Indian government imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) and diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the South African government in 1964.  The U.S. and British governments imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the South African government in 1964.  Three Africans were sentenced to death for murder on February 23, 1965.  Legislative elections were held on March 30, 1966, and the NP won 126 out of 166 seats in the House of Assembly.  The UP won 39 seats in the House of Assembly.  Prime Minister Verwoerd was assassinated on September 6, 1966, and John Vorster formed a government as prime minister on September 13, 1966.  One member of PAC was sentenced to death on October 20, 1966, and nine members of PAC were sentenced to death on December 14, 1966.  The UN General Assembly requested that the UN Security Council impose mandatory economic and military sanctions against the government on December 2, 1968.  The UN General Assembly condemned the government on November 21, 1969, December 11, 1969, and December 15, 1969.  Legislative elections were held on April 22, 1970, and the NP won 118 out of 166 seats in the House of Assembly. The UP won 47 seats in the House of Assembly.  Legislative elections were held on April 24, 1974, and the NP won 123 out of 171 seats in the House of Assembly.  The UP won 41 seats in the House of Assembly.  The governments of Britain, France, and the U.S. vetoed a UN Security Council resolution on October 30, 1974, which would have expelled South Africa from the UN. The UN General Assembly imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of activities) against the South African government on November 12, 1974.  Government police and Africans clashed in Soweto and other townships near Johannesburg on June 16-23, 1976, resulting in the deaths of 176 individuals. The UN Security Council condemned the South African government on June 19, 1976. Some 500 more individuals were killed in political violence in Soweto during the following 20 months. The UN Security Council condemned the South African government on October 31, 1977, and imposed military sanctions (mandatory arms embargo) against the South African government on November 4, 1977.  Legislative elections were held on November 30, 1977, and the NP won 134 out of 165 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) won 17 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) meeting of foreign ministers expressed support for the ANC on July 18, 1978.  P. W. Botha of the National Party (NP) was appointed prime minister by the parliament on October 9, 1978.  Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) heads of state expressed support for the ANC on September 8, 1979.  The UN General Assembly imposed economic sanctions (oil embargo) against the government on December 12, 1979. The UN Security Council condemned the government’s apartheid policies on June 13, 1980. Three ANC members were sentenced to death on November 20, 1980 (the death sentences were commuted to life imprisonment on June 2, 1982).  Legislative elections were held on April 29, 1981, and the NP won 143 out of 178 seats in the House of Assembly.  The PFP won 27 seats in the House of Assembly.  OAU foreign ministers condemned the government’s apartheid policies on June 26, 1981.  Government troops attacked ANC targets in Maseru, Lesotho on December 9, 1982, resulting in the deaths of 42 individuals. The UN General Assembly condemned the attack on December 14, 1982, and the UN Security Council condemned the attack on December 15, 1982. NAM heads of state condemned South Africa and expressed support for the ANC on March 12, 1983. ANC rebels attacked South African air force headquarters in Pretoria on May 20, 1983, resulting in the deaths of 19 individuals. Government military aircraft attacked ANC targets in Maputo, Mozambique on May 23, 1983, resulting in the deaths of 41 ANC members, 17 Mozambican soldiers, and six civilians. Mozambique’s foreign minister expressed support for the ANC on May 24, 1983. Thello Simon Mogoerane and two other members of the ANC were executed on June 9, 1983. OAU heads of state condemned the government for the execution of Thello Simon Mogoerane and other ANC member on June 12, 1983. Some 66 percent of voters approved a new constitution in a referendum held on November 2, 1983.  Under the new constitution, a tricameral parliament was established, including the House of Assembly for white people, the House of Representatives for coloured people, and the House of Delegates for Asians.  In addition, the position of Prime Minister was abolished and the “State President” would serve as head of state and government in the South African parliamentary system.  P. W. Botha was elected as State President by the parliament on August 15, 1984, and he was sworn in as State President on September 3, 1984.  The UN Security Council condemned the South African government on August 17, 1984.  Legislative elections were held for coloured people on August 22, 1984, and the Labour Party (LP) won 76 out of 80 seats in the House of Representatives.  Legislative elections were held for Asians on August 28, 1984, and the National People’s Party (NPP) won 18 out of 40 seats in the House of Delegates.  Some 14 individuals were killed during rioting in Sharpsville on September 3, 1984. OAU heads of state condemned the government on November 15, 1984.  Government police killed some 20 individuals near Uitenhage on March 21, 1985. The government declared a state-of-emergency on July 20, 1985. The European Community (EC) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (partial trade embargo) against the government on July 26, 1985.  Commonwealth of Nations (CON) heads-of-state established a seven-member good offices commission (Australia, Barbados, Britain, Canada, India, Nigeria, Tanzania) headed by Malcolm Fraser of Australia and Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria on October 22, 1985. Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) heads of state condemned the government’s apartheid policies on February 18, 1986.  Government troops attacked ANC targets in Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe on May 19, 1986, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) good offices commission issued its final report on June 12, 1986. The South African government declared a national state-of-emergency on June 12, 1986.  Organization of African Union (OAU) foreign ministers condemned the government on July 26, 1986. Three ANC members were executed on September 9, 1986.  The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) sent a four-member fact-finding mission (Britain, Ireland, Switzerland, West Germany) to investigate human rights conditions in South Africa in February 1987. The ICJ fact-finding mission issued its report on March 16, 1987.  Legislative elections were held for white people on May 6, 1987, and the NP won 133 out of 178 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Conservative Party (CP) won 23 seats in the House of Assembly.  OAU foreign ministers condemned the South African government on May 23, 1988 and July 22, 1989.  President P. W. Botha resigned on August 4, 1989, and F. W. De Klerk was sworn in as acting State President on August 15, 1989.  Legislative elections were held for white people on September 6, 1989, and the NP won 103 out of 178 seats in the House of Assembly.  The CP won 41 seats in the House of Assembly.  Legislative elections were held for coloured people on September 6, 1989, and the LP won 74 out of 85 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Democratic Reform Party (DRP) won five seats in the House of Representatives.  Legislative elections were held for Asians on September 6, 1989, and the Solidarity Party (SP) won 19 out of 45 seats in the House of Delegates.  The National People’s Party (NPP) won nine seats in the House of Delegates.  F. W. De Klerk was elected president by the parliament on September 20, 1989.  President F. W. De Klerk legalized the ANC and other political parties on February 2, 1990, and ordered the release of Nelson Mandela from prison on February 11, 1990.  The government lifted the state-of-emergency, except in Natal province, on June 7, 1990.  The government lifted the state-of-emergency in Natal province on October 18, 1990.  Nelson Mandela and President De Klerk signed the National Peace Accord on September 14, 1991. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) established a mission provide repatriation assistance to some 40,000 ANC exiles abroad between September 1991 and September 1993.  A referendum for white voters on ending Apartheid was held on March 17, 1992.  Supporters of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) attacked and killed 19 men, women, and children in the township of Boipatong on June 17, 1992.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed former U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance as UN Special Representative to South Africa on July 17, 1992, and appointed Lakhdar Brahimi as UN Special Representative on December 15, 1992. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali sent fact-finding missions to South Africa on September 16-27, 1992 and November 22-December 9, 1992. The UN and four regional organizations established observer and fact-finding missions in South Africa to monitor and investigate human rights conditions and violence.  The UN Security Council established the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA – peace promotion division) consisting of 50 civilian personnel on August 17, 1992.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) established the Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa (COMSA) consisting of 17 personnel on October 15, 1992. The Organization of African Union (OAU) established a commission of inquiry that investigated human rights and violence from September 10 to October 3, 1992.  The European Community (EC) established the European Community Observer Mission in South Africa (ECOMSA) consisting of 20 personnel on October 27, 1992.  The Organization of African Union (OAU) established the OAU Observer Mission in South Africa (OAU – OMSA) consisting of 13 personnel on November 1, 1992. The UN General Assembly lifted economic sanctions (oil embargo) against South Africa on December 9, 1993. The South African government established the National Peacekeeping Force (NPKF), which consisted of 5,000 personnel, to provide security during the election process.  The Transitional Executive Authority (TEC) – which consisted of twenty representatives of the government, ANC, National Party, and other political parties and organizations – appealed to the Commonwealth of Nations secretariat for peacekeeping monitoring assistance on January 19, 1994.  The European Union (EU) established the European Union Election Unit in South Africa (EUNELSA) consisting of 322 observers to monitor the election process beginning on January 25, 1994.  On February 12, 1994, the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) announced a boycott of the upcoming legislative elections.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) established the Commonwealth Peacekeeping Assistance Group (CPAG) consisting of 33 military and police officers from seven countries to provide peacekeeping assistance from February 15 to April 15, 1994.  The government imposed a state-of-emergency in Natal province on March 31, 1994.  Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and former British Foreign Secretary Lord Peter Carrington led a seven-member mediation team to South Africa on April 12-13, 1994.  Although the Kissinger – Carrington mediation effort failed, representatives of the government, ANC, and Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) signed the Memorandum of Agreement for Reconciliation and Peace on April 19, 1994.  The IFP agreed to participate in the upcoming elections, the parties agreed to hold “free and fair” elections, and the parties agreed to recognize and protect the institutions, status, and role of the Zulu monarch and the KwaZulu kingdom.  Legislative elections were held on April 26-29, 1994, and the ANC won 252 out of 400 seats in the National Assembly.  The NP won 82 seats in the National Assembly in the National Assembly.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 104 observers to monitor the election process from April 9 to May 4, 1994.  UNOMSA – electoral division sent 2,527 personnel to monitor the parliamentary elections. The Organization of African Union (OAU) sent 102 observers to monitor the parliamentary elections.  EUNELSA and COMSA were disbanded on May 10, 1994. Nelson Mandela was elected president by the National Assembly, and he was inaugurated as president on May 10, 1994.  The European Union (EU) lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (partial trade embargo) against the government on May 25, 1994.  The UN Security Council lifted military sanctions (mandatory arms embargo) against the government on May 25, 1994.  South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on June 1, 1994.  UNOMSA was disbanded on June 17, 1994.  The government lifted the state of emergency in Natal province on September 7, 1994.  The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) boycotted the parliament between February 21 and March 5, 1995.  The IFP suspended its participation in the Constituent Assembly on April 8, 1995.  Some 112 individuals were killed in political violence in Kwazulu-Natal province in September 1995, and some 150 individuals were killed in political violence in Kwazulu-Natal province in December 1995.  The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) held its opening session in East London on April 15, 1996.  The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on May 8, 1996.  The European Union (EU) announced some $600 million in economic assistance to South Africa on December 4, 1997.  Thabo Mbeki was elected as President of the ANC on December 17, 1997.  Some 1,200 individuals were killed in political violence in 1997.  The U.S. government lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the South African government on February 27, 1998.  James Zulu, leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) in southern KwaZulu-Natal Province, was killed by two gunmen in the town of Port Shepstone on April 13, 1998.  Eight individuals, including Deputy Mayor Percy Thompson, were killed by gunmen in the town of Richmond in KwaZulu-Natal Province on July 4, 1998.  Ten individuals, including two women and two children, were killed in political violence near Richmond in KwaZulu-Natal Province on July 10-11, 1998.  Two members of the ANC were killed in political violence in KwaZulu-Natal Province on July 15, 1998.  Bulelani Xolo, a local leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), was killed in political violence in KwaZulu-Natal Province on July 16, 1998.  Nine individuals, including four children, were killed in political violence in the town of Richmond in KwaZulu-Natal Province on July 29, 1998.  The TRC ended its human rights investigations on July 31, 1998.  Three local leaders of the ANC were killed in political violence in KwaZulu-Natal Province on October 5, 1998.  The TRC issued a final report on October 29, 1998.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1998.  General Secretary Sifiso Nkabinde of the United Democratic Movement (UDM) was killed in political violence in the town of Richmond in Kwazulu-Natal province on January 23, 1999.  Eleven individuals were killed by gunmen in the town of Richmond in KwaZulu-Natal Province on January 24, 1999.  The Swedish government agreed to provide $74 million in economic assistance to South Africa on February 12, 1999.  Five local politicians, including four members of the UDM, were killed in political violence in Cape Town on March 7-9, 1999.  The ANC and Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) signed a peace pact in Durban on May 14, 1999.  More than 12,000 individuals were killed in political violence between supporters of the ANC and IFP from 1985 to 1999.  At least 15,000 individuals were killed in political violence during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 15, 1999-present):  Legislative elections were held on June 2, 1999, and the ANC won 266 out of 400 seats in the National Assembly.  The Democratic Party (DP) won 38 seats in the National Assembly, and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) won 34 seats in the National Assembly.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 21 observers headed by Sir David Steel of Britain to monitor the legislative elections from May 24 to June 3, 1999.  The International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent twelve observers to monitor the legislative elections from May 26 to June 7, 1999.  The Organization of African Union (OAU) sent 65 observers headed by Nicephore Sogo of Benin to monitor the legislative elections from May 31 to June 5, 1999.  Thabo Mbeki was elected president without opposition by the National Assembly on June 14, 1999, and he was inaugurated as president on June 16, 1999.  Seven supporters of the ANC were killed in political violence in near Johannesburg on July 19-20, 1999.  Legislative elections were held on April 14, 2004, and the ANC won 279 out of 400 seats in the National Assembly.  The Democratic Alliance (DA) won 50 seats, and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) won 28 seats in the National Assembly.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent 40 observers headed by Abel Leshele Thoahlane of Lesotho to monitor the legislative elections from April 7 to April 17, 2004.  President Thabo Mbeki was re-elected by the National Assembly on April 23, 2004, and he was sworn in for a second five-year term on April 27, 2004.  President Mbeki dismissed Mangosuthu Buthelezi, leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), as Home Affairs Minister on April 28, 2004.  The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) withdrew from President Mbeki’s cabinet on April 29, 2004.  More than 60 individuals were killed and more than 100,000 individuals were displaced as a result of anti-immigrant violence in Alexandra Township, Durban, Cape Town, and other locations beginning on May 11, 2008.  Legislative elections were held on April 22, 2009, and the ANC won 264 out of 400 seats in the National Assembly.  The DA won 67 seats in the National Assembly.  The African Union (AU) sent 42 observers led by Dr. Salim Ahmed Salim of Tanzania to monitor the legislative elections.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 88 observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The Electoral Commissions Forum of SADC Countries (ECF-SADC) sent 27 observers from ten countries led by Professor Balefi Tsie of Botswana to monitor the legislative elections from April 14 to April 24, 2009.  The SADC Parliamentary Forum (SADC-PF) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent 33 observers from 13 countries to monitor the legislative elections from April 15 to April 23, 2009.  One supporter of the ANC was killed in post-election violence on April 28, 2009.  Jacob Zuma of the ANC was elected president by the National Assembly on May 6 2009, and he was sworn in as president on May 9, 2009.  Members of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and other labor unions went on strike for higher wages beginning on August 10, 2012.  Some 500 government policemen killed 34 striking workers at a platinum mine in Marikana, 60 miles northwest of Johannesburg, on August 16, 2012.  Some 270 miners were arrested and charged with murder following the massacre.  Striking miners in Marikana agreed to go back to work on September 20, 2012.  Some 12,000 striking platinum miners were fired by the Anglo American Platinum (AMPLATS) company in Rustenburg on October 5, 2012.  More than 40 individuals, including two government policemen and two security guards, were killed in violence during the strikes.  Former President Nelson Mandela died at his home in Johannesburg on December 5, 2013.  On December 19, 2013, President Jacob Zuma was cleared by an inquiry of money spent to upgrade his private residence.  The National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (NUMSA) withdrew its support for the ANC on December 20, 2013.  Some 70,000 members of the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union (AMCU) went on strike at the platinum mine near Rustenburg beginning on January 23, 2014.  The AMCU agreed to a wage deal with the platinum mining companies on June 23, 2014.  Legislative elections were held on May 7, 2014, and the ANC won 249 out of 400 seats in the National Assembly.  The DA won 89 seats in the National Assembly.  The African Union (AU) sent 54 observers from 25 countries led by former President John Kufuor of Ghana to monitor the legislative elections from April 27 to May 12, 2014.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent three observers led by former Foreign Minister Nana Akufo-Addo of Ghana to monitor the legislative elections.  The SADC, including an Electoral Advisory Council and an Electoral Observation Mission, sent 188 observers to monitor the legislative elections from March 26 to May 8, 2014.  The Lawyers’ Association of the SADC sent 30 observers led by Boma Ozobia of Nigeria to monitor the legislative elections.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent twelve observers from 13 countries to monitor the legislative elections.  Jacob Zuma was re-elected as president for a second term by the National Assembly on May 21, 2014, and he was sworn in for a second term on May 24, 2014.  Some seven individuals were killed and some 5,000 individuals were displaced as a result of anti-immigrant violence in Durban, Alexandra Township, and other locations beginning on March 30, 2015.  Government police clashed with anti-government protesters in Cape Town on February 11, 2016.  On February 25, 2016, North-West University in Mahikeng was closed after protesters set fire to several buildings on campus.  On March 1, 2016, President Jacob Zuma survived a vote of no-confidence in the National Assembly.  On March 31, 2016, the 11-judge Constitutional Court of South Africa ordered President Jacob Zuma to repay $16 million in public funds used for upgrades at his private home in Nkandla in KwaZulu province.  On April 5, 2016, President Jacob Zuma survived an impeachment vote in the National Assembly by a vote of 143-233.  Protesters burned 13 schools in Limpopo province in northern South Africa on May 2-3, 2016.

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Selected Bibliography

Anglin, Douglas G. 1995a. “The Life and Death of South Africa’s National Peacekeeping Force.” Journal of Modern African Studies 33 (no.1): 21-52.

Anglin, Douglas G. 1995b. “International Monitoring of the Transition to Democracy in South Africa.” African Affairs 94: 519-543.

Barber, James. 1999. South Africa in the Twentieth Century: A Political History – In Search of a Nation State. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Davenport, T. R. H. 1991. South Africa: A Modern History, 4th ed. London: MacMillan Press.

Lacour-Gayet, Robert. 1977. A History of South Africa. London: Cassell Publishing.

Muller, C. F. J. 1975. Five Hundred Years: A History of South Africa. Pretoria and Capetown: Academia Press.