42. Rwanda (1962-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (July 1, 1962-December 19, 1963): Rwanda formally achieved its independence from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration on July 1, 1962.  Grégoire Kayibanda of the Parmehutu Democratic Republican Movement (Mouvement Démocratique Republicain Parmehutu – MDR Parmehutu) was chosen as president of Rwanda.  The French government provided military assistance (weapons and military advisors) to the Rwandan government from 1962 to 1994.

Crisis Phase (December 20, 1963-March 20, 1967):  Tutsi rebels invaded the country from Burundian territory on December 20th 1963.  Tutsi rebels killed four government soldiers in Agako on December 20, 1963.  Some Tutsi 350 rebels and 400 civilians were killed during the invasion.  Some 500 Tutsi rebels invaded Rwanda from Burundi on December 27, 1963, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 rebels.  On December 29, 1963, the Rwandan government appealed to UN Secretary-General U Thant for assistance.  At least 10,000 Tutsis were massacred by government troops in the Gikongoro area in southern Rwanda between December 21, 1963 and January 12, 1964.  UN Secretary-General U Thant appointed Max Dorsinville of Haiti to investigate the matter, and Max Dorsinville arrived in Rwanda on January 1, 1963.  Tutsi rebels attacked the customs post in Bugarama on February 1, 1963, resulting in the deaths of four customs officials.  Tutsi rebels killed some 50 individuals in the village of Bungarama on February 2, 1964.  Max Dorsinville issued a report to the UN secretary-general on February 24, 1964.  Legislative elections were held on March 10, 1965, and the Parmehutu Democratic Republican Movement (Mouvement Démocratique Republicain Parmehutu – MDR Parmehutu) won 47 out of 47 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  President Grégoire Kayibanda was re-elected without opposition on March 10, 1965.  Tutsi rebels invaded Rwanda from Burundi territory beginning in September 1966.  Rwanda accused Burundi of supporting the rebels in November 1966. Some 160,000 Rwandans fled as refugees to neighboring countries, including 70,000 to Uganda, 52,000 to Burundi, 25,000 to Congo-Kinshasa, and 12,000 to Tanzania.  Burundi agreed to end support of Tutsu rebels on March 20, 1967.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 21, 1967-February 28, 1973):  Legislative elections were held on September 29, 1969, and the Parmehutu Democratic Republican Movement (Mouvement Démocratique Republicain Parmehutu – MDR Parmehutu) won 47 out of 47 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  President Grégoire Kayibanda was re-elected without opposition on September 29, 1969.  Ethnic violence occurred between Hutus and Tutsis beginning on March 1, 1973.

Crisis Phase (July 5, 1973-September 29, 1990): President Grégoire Kayibanda was deposed in a military coup led by Major General Juvénal Habyarimana on July 5, 1973.  The government of Burundi expressed support for the government of Major General Habyarimana on July 6, 1973.  The National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (Mouvement Républicain National pour la Démocratie et le Dévelopement – MRND) was established as the country’s only legal political party in 1976.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on December 17, 1978.  Major General Habyarimana was confirmed as president in a referendum held on December 24, 1978.  Legislative elections were held on December 28, 1981, and the MRND won 64 out of 64 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  President Habyarimana was re-elected without opposition on December 19, 1983.  Legislative elections were held on December 26, 1983, and the MRND won 70 out of 70 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance to the government between April 28, 1987 and December 31, 1998.  President Habyarimana was re-elected without opposition on December 19, 1988.  Legislative elections were held on December 26, 1988, and the MRND won 70 out of 70 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed, and some 70,000 individuals fled as refugees to Uganda during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (September 30, 1990-November 1, 1990): Some 4,000 members of the Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais – FPR) led by Major General Fred Rwigyema invaded Rwanda from Uganda on September 30, 1990. The chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and Prime Minister Wilfried Martens of Belgium attempted to mediate a ceasefire agreement beginning on October 15, 1990, but the Rwandan government refused to negotiate with the FPR. Some 300 French troops were deployed in support of the government on October 4, 1990. Belgium deployed 535 troops in support of the government between October 4 and November 1, 1990. Congo-Kinshasa deployed 1,000 troops in support of the government on October 4-17, 1990. The parties agreed to a ceasefire on October 26, 1990, and military hostilities ended on November 1, 1990. Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (November 2, 1990-February 7, 1993): The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission consisting of some 80 international personnel and 650 local personnel to provide humanitarian assistance beginning in 1990.  President Mobuto Sese Seko of Zaire mediated a ceasefire agreement on March 18, 1991, and the ceasefire went into effect on March 29, 1991.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) deployed a military observer team (MOT), consisting of military observers from Burundi, Uganda, and Zaire, from April 1, 1991 to September 30, 1991.  Military hostilities resumed in April 1991.  The government legalized opposition political parties on June 2, 1991. A new constitution was adopted on June 10, 1991. Sylvestre Nsanzimana formed a government as prime minister on October 12, 1991.  Zaire mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the parties in Gbadolite, Zaire on October 26, 1991.  Sylvestre Nsanzimana formed a government as prime minister on October 12, 1991. Tanzania mediated a ceasefire agreement between the government and the Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais – FPR) in Arusha, Tanzania on July 22, 1992. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) deployed the Neutral Military Observer Group (NMOG I) to monitor the ceasefire agreement beginning on August 1, 1992.  NMOG II consisted of 45 military observers from Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal, and Zimbabwe (10 military observers from each of the countries, plus five additional non-commissioned officers-NCOs from Nigeria) commanded by General Ekundayo Opayele of Nigeria.

Conflict Phase (February 8, 1993-August 3, 1993):  Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais – FPR) rebels attacked government troops in northern Rwanda beginning on February 8, 1993.  The governments of Belgium, France, and the U.S. condemned the FPR on February 9, 1993. The FPR announed a ceasefire on February 10, 1993, and the ceasefire was accepted by the government on February 21, 1993. The Rwandan government accused Uganda of supporting the FPR, and the countries referred the matter to the United Nations (UN) Security Council on February 22, 1993.  UN fact-finding missions were sent to the region from March 4 to April 6, 1993.  On June 22, 1993, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) to monitor the Rwanda-Uganda border.   At its maximum strength, UNOMUR consisted of 81 military observers from Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Hungary, Netherlands, Senegal, Slovak Republic, and Zimbabwe commanded by Brigadier-General Romeo A. Dallaire of Canada (June 1993 to October 1993), Colonel Ben Matiwaza of Zimbabwe (October 1993 to March 1994), and Colonel Asrarul Haque of Bangladesh (March 1994 to September 1994).  President Juvenal Habyarimana appointed Agathe Uwilingiymana as prime minister on July 16, 1993.  NMOG I was replaced by the Neutral Military Observer Group (NMOG II) on August 1, 1993.  NMOG II consisted of 132 military observers (70 military observers from Congo-Brazzaville, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tunisia, plus 62 non-commissioned officers-NCOs from Tunisia) commanded by Major-General Ekundayo Opayele of Nigeria.  The Tanzania government mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between government and FPR representatives in Arusha on August 3, 1993. Some 15,000 individuals were killed, and some 350,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (August 4, 1993-April 5, 1994): On October 5, 1993, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) to assist in ensuring the security of the capital city of Kigali; to monitor the ceasefire agreement, including establishment of an expanded demilitarized zone and demobilization procedures; to monitor the security situation during the final period of the transitional Government’s mandate leading up to elections; to assist with mine-clearance; and to assist in the coordination of humanitarian assistance activities in conjunction with relief operations.  At its maximum strength, UNAMIR consisted of some 5,200 peacekeeping troops and 320 military observers from 40 countries commanded by Major-General Romeo A. Dallaire of Canada (October 1993 to August 1994), Major-General Guy Tousignant of Canada (August 1994 to December 1995), and Brig.-General Shiva Kumar of India (December 1995 to March 1996).  UNAMIR also included 120 civilian police personnel commanded by Colonel Manfred Bliem of Austria (December 1993 to April 1994) and Colonel C. O. Diarra of Mali (October 1994 to January 1996).  NMOG II was disbanded on October 31, 1993.

Conflict Phase (April 6, 1994-July 18, 1994):  Ethnic violence broke out between Hutus and Tutsis following the death of President Habyarimana in a plane crash on April 6, 1994. The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions against Rwanda in 1994. The International Rescue Committee (IRC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to civilians beginning in 1994. The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and opposition groups on May 17, 1994.  The United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) established the Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda (HRFOR), which consisted of 125 personnel headed by Rene Degni-Segui, on May 25, 1994 (five UN human rights observers were killed in an ambush on February 4, 1997). The UN Security Council demanded a ceasefire on June 8, 1994. On June 22, 1994, the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of a French-led multinational force (Operation Turquoise) to provide security for a humanitarian zone.  The French-led multinational force, which consisted of some 3,050 troops from France (2,550 military personnel), Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Chad, Mauritania, Egypt, Niger, and Congo-Brazzaville, was deployed beginning on June 23, 1994.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appealed for a ceasefire on July 1, 1994.  Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais – FPR) rebels captured the capital of Kigali on July 4, 1994, and Hutu government troops withdrew to Zaire. Some 2.4 million Hutu refugees fled to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, and Tanzania in 1994. Some three million individuals were internally-displaced as a result of ethnic violence in 1994. The UN Security Council demanded a ceasefire on July 4, 1994. FPR rebels captured the town of Ruhengeri on July 12, 1994, and FPR rebels captured Gisenyi on July 18, 1994. Some 800,000 individuals were killed, and some five million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 19, 1994-March 31, 2005): The Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais – FPR) installed a transitional government headed by Pasteur Bizimungu as president on July 19, 1994. The U.S. government deployed 2,350 military personnel to Rwanda to provide humanitarian assistance (Operation Support Hope) between July 24 and September 30, 1994. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) established a mission to provide repatriation assistance to Rwandan refugees in July 1994. A three member UN commission of inquiry (Guinea, Mail, Togo) headed by Atsu-Koffi Amega of Togo investigated violations of human rights and reports of genocide in Rwanda from August 15 to December 9, 1994. Major-General Guy Tousignant of Canada was appointed as commander of UNAMIR on August 15, 1994.  The French-led multinational force withdrew from Rwanda on August 21, 1994.  UNOMUR was disbanded on September 21, 1994.  On November 8, 1994, the UN Security Council established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), which consisted of nine judges based in Arusha, Tanzania, to investigate violations of international law. The 70-member Transitional National Assembly convened in Kigali on December 12, 1994. The UN Security expanded UNAMIR to 120 civilian police in February 1995. The Transitional National Assembly approved a new constitution on May 5, 1995. The UN Security Council suspended military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Rwandan government on August 16, 1995 (UN military sanctions remained in effect against the opposition groups).  President Bizimungu dismissed Prime Minister Faustin Twagiramungu of the Republican Democratic Movement (RDM) on August 28, 1995, and Pierre-Celestin Rwigyema of the RDM was appointed as prime minister on August 31, 1995.  On September 7, 1995, the UN Security Council authorized the establishment of the six-member UN International Commission of Inquiry (UNICOI), consisting of representatives of Canada, Egypt, Germany, Netherlands, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe.  Government troops killed 100 civilians in Kanama on September 11, 1995. Government troops killed some 140 rebels on an island in Lake Kivu on November 5-6, 1995. UNAMIR was disbanded on March 8, 1996.  Twenty-seven UNAMIR personnel, including 25 military personnel and one civilian police personnel, were killed during the mission. The UN international commission of inquiry (UNICOI), which investigated reported violations of the UN arms embargo that allegedly occurred in 1994, issued its final report on March 13, 1996.  Government troops clashed with Hutu militants in northwestern Rwanda on August 4-18, 1996.  Some 14 individuals were killed in a grenade attack in Nyakabuye on September 3, 1996.  Some 20 Tutsi civilians were killed by Hutu militants near Ruhengeri on January 30, 1997.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) suspended humanitarian assistance on February 6, 1997.  Some 21 Hutus, including 16 children, were killed by gunmen near Kibungo on February 22, 1997.  An ICRC mission consisting of some 70 international personnel and 540 local personnel resumed humanitarian assistance on March 26, 1997.  Former prime minister Jean Kambanda was arrested in Kenya on July 18, 1997.  Some 120 individuals were killed at a refugee camp in western Rwanda on August 3, 1997.  Members of the Rwanda Patriotic Army (RPA) killed at least 150 civilians in Gisenyi on November 9, 1997.  Members of the RPA killed some 300 in Ruhengeri on November 16, 1997.  Members of the RPA killed some 539 civilians in Jenda, Nkuli, and Ruhengeri on November 21, 1997.  Some 12 individuals were killed by Hutu militants in Tamba on December 12, 1997.  Some 37 individuals were killed by Hutu militants in Kibuye and Gitarama on December 24, 1997.  Some 84 refugees were also killed by Hutu militants in Gisenyi on December 24, 1997.  Some 52 individuals were killed by Hutu militants in Nyabikenke on January 6, 1998, and some 40 individuals were killed by Hutu militants in Gitarama on January 7, 1998.  Members of the Rwanda Patriotic Army (RPA) killed more than 420 individuals during military operations in Gisenyi and Ruhengeri on January 11-24, 1998.  Some 40 individuals were killed by Hutu militants in a bus attack on January 19, 1998.  Eight Tutsis were killed by Hutu militants in Kibungo on March 14, 1998.  Some 26 individuals were killed by Hutu militants in Bulinga on April 9, 1998.  Some 24 individuals were massacred by Hutu militants in Musambira on April 10, 1998.  On April 23, 1998, Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the Rwandan Council of Ministers for its decision to execute 23 individuals sentenced to death for genocide.  Four individuals convicted of genocide were executed by the government on April 24, 1998.  Former prime minister Jean Kambanda pled guilty to genocide and crimes against humanity in the ICTR on May 2, 1998.  Hutu militants killed ten individuals in Ruhengeri on May 4, 1998.  On June 3, 1998, OAU Secretary-General Salim Ahmed Salim established the seven-member International Panel of Eminent Personalities (IPEP) headed by Ketumile Masire of Botswana to investigate the 1994 genocide.  Former prime minister Jean Kambanda was sentenced to life-imprisonment by the ICTR on September 4, 1998.  Some 15,000 individuals were killed in political violence between 1994 and 1998. Hutu rebels killed 29 Tutsi civilians in the village of Mutura on December 24, 1999.  The Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (Forces Democratiques de la Liberation du Rwanda – FDLR) was established in opposition to the government in 2000.  Prime Minister Pierre-Celestin Rwigema resigned on February 28, 2000. The EU lifted economic sanctions against the government on March 7, 2000.  President Pasteur Bizimungu appointed Bernard Makuza as prime minister on March 8, 2000. President Bizimungu resigned on March 23, 2000. Vice-President Paul Kagame was elected president by the Legislative Assembly on April 17, 2000, and he was inaugurated as president on April 22, 2000. Hutu rebels killed four individuals in Ruwero on May 24, 2000. Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed in May and June 2001, resulting in the deaths of some 400 rebels.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on May 26, 2003.  The EU sent six election experts and 12 long-term observers headed by Colette Flesch of Luxembourg to monitor the referendum from April 30 to June 7, 2003.  President Kagame was re-elected with 95 percent of the vote on August 25, 2003, and he was inaugurated for a seven-year term on September 12, 2003.  The African Union (AU) sent eleven observers headed by Brigalia Bam of South Africa to monitor the presidential election from August 19 to August 27, 2003.  South Africa sent 19 observers to monitor the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held between September 29 and October 3, 2003, and the Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais – FPR) won 40 out of 53 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Social Democratic Party (Parti Social Democrate – PSD) won seven seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The EU sent 12 long-term observers and 60 short-term observers headed by Colette Flesch of Luxembourg to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from July 22 to October 1, 2003.  The Sant’ Egidio Community mediated negotiations with representatives of the FDLR in Rome, Italy.  On March 31, 2005, the FDLR announced that it was ending its armed struggle against the Rwandan government.  Some 20,000 individuals were killed between July 1994 and March 2005.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 1, 2005-present):  The UN Security Council lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against opposition groups on July 10, 2008.  Legislative elections were held on September 15-18, 2008, and the Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais – FPR) won 42 out of 80 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Social Democratic Party (Parti Social Democrate – PSD) won seven seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent observers led by Ambassador Lazarus O. Amayo of Kenya to monitor the legislative elections.  The European Union (EU) sent eight election experts, 17 long-term observers, and 76 short-term observers from 28 countries led by Michael Cashman of Britain to monitor the legislative elections from July 19 to October 4, 2008.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Rwanda joined the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on November 29, 2009.  At least two individuals were killed in grenade attacks in Kigali on May 15, 2010.  President Paul Kagame of the FPR was re-elected with 93 percent of the vote on August 9, 2010.  The African Union (AU) sent 20 observers led by former foreign minister Anil K. Gayan of Mauritius to monitor the presidential election from August 5 to August 14, 2010.  The East African Community (EAC) sent five observers led by Dr. Sabine Ntakarutimana of Burundi to monitor the presidential election from August 6 to August 11, 2010.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 13 observers and five staff members led by former prime minister Salim Ahmed Salim of Tanzania to monitor the presidential election from August 2 to August 16, 2010.  Three individuals were arrested following a grenade attack in Kigali on August 11, 2010.  The Dutch government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Rwandan government on July 26, 2012.  The German government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Rwandan government on July 28, 2012.  The Swedish government imposed economic sanctions (suspensions of economic assistance) against the Rwandan government on August 12, 2012.  The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Rwandan government on September 26, 2012.  On October 30, 2012, Victoire Ingabire, leader of the United Democratic Forces of Rwanda (Forces Democratiques Unifiées – FDU), was sentenced to eight years in prison for charges related to the 1994 genocide.  Government troops clashed with Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (Forces Democratiques de la Liberation du Rwanda – FDLR) rebels near the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo on November 27, 2012, resulting in the deaths of four rebels.  The German government lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Rwandan government on February 1, 2013.  One individual was killed in a grenade explosion in Kigali on March 26, 2013.  Two individuals were killed in a grenade explosion in Kigali on July 26, 2013.  Legislative elections were held on September 16-18, 2013, and the Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais – FPR) won 41 out of 80 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Social Democratic Party (Parti Social Democrate – PSD) won seven seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The African Union (AU) sent 30 observers led by Rita Makarau of Zimbabwe to monitor the legislative elections from September 9 to September 21, 2013.  The Common Market of East and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent twelve observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The East African Community (EAC) sent 40 short-term observers led by Musa Sirma of Kenya to monitor the legislative elections.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent two observers and two staff members led by Tiro Seeletso of Botswana to monitor the legislative elections from September 10 to September 23, 2013.  On October 3, 2013, the U.S. government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the Rwandan government because of its support of rebels in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.  The EU lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Rwandan government on October 4, 2013.  UN peacekeeping troops in the Democratic Republic of Congo attacked FDLR rebels in eastern DRC on December 10, 2013.

[Sources: Africa Contemporary Record (ACR), 1990-1992; Africa Diary, February 22-28, 1964, April 4-10, 1964; Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), July 1-31, 1973; Agence France Presse (AFP), August 12, 2012; Al Jazeera, July 28, 2012; Arnold et al. 1991, 282-283; Associated Press (AP), December 24, 1999, April 17, 2000, May 31, 2000, May 27, 2003, August 26, 2003; Banks and Muller, 1998, 776-781; Brecher and Wilkenfeld, 1997, 485-486; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), May 26, 2003, August 27, 2003, September 12, 2003, September 29, 2003, October 1, 2003, March 31, 2005, April 11, 2008, September 15, 2008, February 20, 2010, March 5, 2010, August 11, 2010, August 12, 2010, October 14, 2010, January 4, 2012, January 13, 2012, July 22, 2012, July 27, 2012, October 30, 2012, November 30, 2012, September 14, 2013, September 16, 2013, September 17, 2013, October 4, 2013; Commonwealth of Nations (CON) press release, July 27, 2010; Degenhardt, 1988, 314; East African Community (EAC) statement, September 18, 2013; European Union (EU) press releases and statements, April 30, 2003, July 31, 2003, August 1, 2008, September 17, 2008; Facts on File, November 25-December 1, 1965; International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) press release, March 27, 1997, March 5, 1998; Jessup, 1998, 634-635; Keesing’s Record of World Events, May 23-30, 1964, July 23-29, 1973, March 9, 1979, October 1990, February 1993, July 1993, April 1994, May 1994, June 1994, July 1994, August 1995, November 1995; New York Times (NYT), August 23, 1997, May 16, 2010, August 11, 2010, July 21, 2012, October 30, 2012, October 4, 2013; Organization of African Unity (OAU) press release, June 3, 1998; Panafrican News Agency (PANA), February 28, 2000, March 23, 2000, April 17, 2000, April 22, 2000; Reuters, December 24, 1999, March 7, 2000, March 8, 2000, April 17, 2000, June 6, 2001, August 26, 2003, August 27, 2003, September 12, 2003, July 26, 2012, September 4, 2012, September 26, 2012, October 30, 2012, November 27, 2012, November 30, 2012, February 1, 2013, March 26, 2013, July 26, 2013, July 30, 2013, August 10, 2013, August 12, 2013, October 3, 2013, October 4, 2013, November 6, 2013, December 10, 2013, June 4, 2014, July 3, 2014; UN Chronicle, December 1994, 1997 (no.1); United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) press release, June 20, 1997; Voice of America (VOA), October 3, 2013.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Reed, William Cyrus. 1996. “Exile, Reform, and the Rise of the Rwandan Patriotic Front.” Journal of Modern African Studies 34 (no.3): 479-501.