24. Mali (1960-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (September 22, 1960-November 18, 1968): Mali formally achieved its independence from France, and Modibo Keita was appointed as president on September 22, 1960.  President Modibo Keita was re-elected by the National Assembly on May 13, 1964.  Legislative elections were held on June 12, 1964, and the Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally (Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain – US-RDA) won 80 out of 80 seats in the National Assembly.  The National Committee for the Defence of the Revolution (Comité National de Défense de la Révolution- CNDR) headed by President Modibo Keita took control of the government on August 22, 1967.  President Modibo Keita dissolved the National Assembly on January 17, 1968.

Crisis Phase (November 19, 1968-June 8, 1992):  President Modibo Keita was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. Moussa Traore on November 19, 1968, and the Military Committee of National Liberation (Comite Militaire de Liberation Nationale – CMLN) headed by Lt. Moussa Traore took control of the government on November 20, 1968. Captain Yoro Diakite formed a government as prime minister on November 23, 1968.  The Malian constitution was abrogated on December 6, 1968.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion on August 12-13, 1969.  Lt. Moussa Traore became head-of-state on September 19, 1969. The CMLN suppressed a military rebellion on April 7, 1971.  The government of the Soviet Union agreed to provide military assistance (weapons and 60 military advisers) to the Malian government beginning in 1972.  Lt. Moussa Traore announced a new constitution on April 26, 1974, and the constitution was approved by 99 percent of the voters in a referendum on June 2, 1974. The constitution provided for a one-party political system.  Twelve individuals were sentenced to death for their involvement in a rebellion on June 10, 1977. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Defense Minister Kissima Doukara in February 1978.  President Ahmed Sekou Touré of Guinea and President Houari Boumediene of Algeria expressed support for the government of Lt. Colonel Moussa Traore on March 2, 1978. The Democratic Union of the Malian People (Union Democratique de Peuple Malien – UDPM) was established on March 30, 1979.  Legislative elections were held on June 19, 1979, and the UDPM won 82 out of 82 seats in the National Assembly.  Lt. Colonel Moussa Traore was elected president without opposition on June 19, 1979, and President Moussa Traore formed a government as prime minister on June 28, 1979. Government troops and student demonstrators clashed in Bamako on December 17-18, 1979, resulting in the deaths of 15 students. Student leader, Abdoul Karim Camara, was killed in detention by government police in Bamako on March 21, 1980. Government troops suppressed a rebellion on December 30-31, 1980, and two individuals were sentenced to death for their involvement in the rebellion on March 14, 1981.  Legislative elections were held on June 13, 1982, and the UDPM won 82 out of 82 seats in the National Assembly.  President Traore appointed Mamadou Dembele as prime minister on June 6, 1985.  Legislative elections were held on June 9, 1985, and the UDPM won 82 out of 82 seats in the National Assembly.  President Traore was re-elected without opposition on June 9, 1985.  Legislative elections were held on June 26, 1988, and the UDPM won 82 out of 82 seats in the National Assembly. Malians demonstrated in support of democracy in Bamako on December 10 and December 31, 1990. Government police and pro-democracy demonstrators clashed in Bamako on January 21-22, 1991, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. Some 200 individuals were killed during demonstrations against the government in Bamako on March 22-27, 1991.  The government declared a state-of-emergency on March 22, 1991.  President Traore was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. Colonel Amadou Toumani Touré on March 26, 1991. The Council of National Reconciliation (Conseil de Réconciliation Nationale-CRN) headed by Lt. Colonel Touré took control of the government, and suspended the constitution on March 27, 1991. The CRN established the 25-member Transitional Committee for the Salvation of the People (Comité de Transition pour le Salut du Peuple-CTSP) on March 30, 1991, and the CTSP appointed Soumana Sacko as provisional prime minister on April 2, 1991. The CTSP legalized opposition political parties on April 5, 1991.  The Rally for Democracy and Progress (Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le ProgrésRDP) was established on April 19, 1991.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum by 98 percent of the voters on January 12, 1992, which provided for a multiparty political system and a democratically-elected president.  Municipal elections were held on January 19, 1992, and the Alliance for Democracy in Mali (ADEMA) won 214 out of 761 seats in municipal councils.  Legislative elections were held on February 23 and March 8, 1992, and ADEMA won 76 out of 116 contested seats in the National Assembly. The CNID won nine seats in the National Assembly. Alpha Oumar Konaré of ADEMA was elected president with 69 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on April 26, 1992, and he was inaugurated as president on June 8, 1992. President Konaré appointed Younoussi Touré as prime minister on June 8, 1992.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 9, 1992-March 21, 2012):  One individual was killed in political violence in Bamako on April 5, 1993. President Konare dismissed Prime Minister Younoussi Touré on April 9, 1993, and appointed Abdoulaye Sékou Sow as prime minister on April 12, 1993.  Prime Minister Sékou Sow resigned on February 2, 1994, and President Konare appointed Ibrahim Boubacar Keita as prime minister on February 4, 1994. President Konaré dissolved the National Assembly on March 4, 1997.  Legislative elections were held on April 13, 1997. On April 25, 1997, the Constitutional Court nullified the results of the parliamentary elections as a result of election irregularities. President Konaré was re-elected with 96 percent of the vote on May 11, 1997. Eight opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election. Legislative elections were held on July 20 and August 3, 1997, and ADEMA won 129 out of 147 contested seats in the National Assembly. The National Renaissance Party (NRP) won eight seats in the National Assembly, and the Front for Change and Democracy (FCD) won four seats in the National Assembly. Several opposition political parties boycotted the parliamentary elections. The International Foundation of Election Systems (IFES) sent observers to monitor the first round of parliamentary elections.  Government police arrested ten opposition political party leaders on August 10, 1997.  Municipal elections that had been scheduled for April 19, 1998 were cancelled as a result of a boycott of opposition political parties. Municipal elections were held between May 2 and June 21, 1999, and ADEMA won some 62 percent of the seats in municipal councils. Opposition political parties boycotted the municipal elections. Prime Minister Keita resigned on February 14, 2000, and President Konaré appointed Mandé Sidibé as prime minister on February 15, 2000.  Amadou Toumani Touré was elected president with 65 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential election held on May 12, 2002, and he was inaugurated as president on June 8, 2002.  The Carter Center (CC) sent seven observers to monitor the presidential election from April 20 to May 13, 2002.  Legislative elections were held on July 14, 2002, and the Rally for Mally (Rassemblement pour le Mali-RM)-led coalition won 65 out of 160 seats in the National Assembly.  The ADEMA-led coalition won 59 seats in the National Assembly.  Rival Islamic groups clashed in western Mali on August 25-26, 2003, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.  Amadou Toumani Touré was re-elected as president with 71 percent of the vote in the first round held on April 29, 2007.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 60 observers led by Koffi Sama of Togo to monitor the presidential election.  The Organisation Internationale la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers headed by former Prime Minister Gérard Latortue of Haiti to monitor the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held on July 1 and July 22, 2007, and the ADEMA won 51 out of 160 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union for the Republic and Democracy (URD) won 34 seats in the National Assembly.  President Amadou Toumani Touré was sworn in for a second term on June 8, 2007.  Some government troops mutinied at the Kati military barracks on March 21, 2012.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) condemned the mutiny on March 21, 2012.

Crisis Phase (March 22, 2012-June 25, 2012):  President Amadou Toumani Touré was deposed in a military coup led by Captain Amadou Sanogo on March 22, 2012.  The National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State (Comité National pour le Redressement de la Démocratie et la Restauration de l’État-CNRDR) headed by Captain Amadou Sanogo took control of the government on March 22, 2012.  The UN Security Council, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), European Union (EU), and African Union (AU) condemned the military coup on March 22-23, 2012.  The governments of Nigeria, Niger, Ghana, Britain, U.S., Russia, China, Norway, Uganda, and South Africa also condemned the military coup.  The African Union (AU) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Malian government on March 23, 2012.  The French government and the European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of development assistance) against the Malian government on March 23, 2012. The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of development assistance) against the Malian government on March 26, 2012.  The ECOWAS imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Malian government on March 27, 2012, and imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo, frozen bank accounts, and travel ban) against the Malian government on April 2, 2012.  President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso was appointed as the ECOWAS mediator for the Malian crisis on March 27, 2012.  The CNRDR issued a new constitution for Mali on March 28, 2012, but agreed to restore the previous constitution on April 1, 2012.  The UN Security Council condemned the military coup on April 4, 2012.  On April 6, 2012, representatives of the military junta signed a ECOWAS-mediated framework agreement providing for the “restoration of constitutional order” in Mali.  That same day, ECOWAS lifted diplomatic and economic sanctions against the Malian government.  President Amadou Toumani Touré submitted his resignation on April 8, 2012.  Dioncounda Traoré, Speaker of the National Assembly, was sworn in as interim president on April 12, 2012.  Cheick Modibo Diarra was appointed as interim prime minister on April 17, 2012.  Government troops loyal to the CNRDR suppressed an attempted counter-military coup by members of the presidential guard in Bamako on April 30, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals.  Three protesters were killed by government soldiers in Bamako on May 21, 2012.

Conflict Phase (June 26, 2012-March 31, 2013):  Islamist militants affiliated with the Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) captured Gao from Tuareg militants on June 26-27, 2012.  Islamist militants captured the town of Douentza on September 1, 2012.  A “government of national unity” consisting of 31 ministers headed by Prime Minister Cheick Modibo Diarra was approved by President Dioncounda Traoré on August 20, 2012.  Islamist militants took control of the town of Douentza from a local militia on September 1, 2012.  On October 12, 2012, the UN Security Council authorized the planning for an African-led military force to assist the government of Mali to combat the Islamist militants.  The African Union (AU) lifted diplomatic sanctions against the Malian government on October 24, 2012.  Islamist militants took control of Ménaka from Tuareg militants on November 19, 2012, resulting in the deaths of dozens of militants and civilians.  Islamist militants took control of Léré from Tuareg militants on November 28, 2012.  Representatives of the largest Islamist militant group in northern Mali, Ansar Dine (“Defender of the Faith”), agreed to an ECOWAS-mediated ceasefire with the government on December 5, 2012.  Prime Minister Cheick Modibo Diarra was arrested by government soldiers under the orders of Captain Amadou Sanogo on December 10, 2012.  Later that same day, Prime Minister Cheick Modibo Diarra announced the resignation of the government.  President Dioncounda Traoré appointed Django Sissoko as prime minister on December 11, 2012.  On December 20, 2012, the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of the joint AU-ECOWAS African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) to assist the government of Mali against Al-Qaeda and other Islamist militants in northern Mali.  The Ansar Dine (“Defender of the Faith”) group suspended the ceasefire with the government on January 4, 2013.   Islamist militants captured the town of Konna from Malian government troops on January 10, 2013.  The Malian government declared a state-of-emergency on January 11, 2013.  Some 4,000 French military troops intervened in support of the Malian government (Opération Serval) beginning on January 11, 2013.  The governments of Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the U.S. provided transport aircraft and support personnel to assist the French military intervention and government of Mali.  French military helicopters and aircraft attacked Islamist militants in the town of Konna on January 11, 2013, resulting in the deaths of some 100 Islamist militants.  French military helicopters and aircraft attacked Islamist militants in Gao on January 13, 2013, resulting in the deaths of some 60 Islamist militants.  Islamist militants took control of the town of  Diabaly on January 14, 2013.  French troops launched a military offensive against Islamist militants on January 16, 2013. The joint AU-ECOWAS African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) was deployed in Mali on January 17, 2013.  AFISMA consisted of some 7,500 military personnel from Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo commanded by Major General Abdulkadir Shehu of Nigeria.  AFISMA also consisted of 173 civilian staff personnel.  Malian government troops took control of Konna from Islamist militants on January 18, 2013, resulting in the deaths of ten civilians and several dozen government soldiers.  French military forces took control of the town of Markala on January 19, 2013.  French and Malian military forces took control of the town of Diabaly from Islamist militants on January 21, 2013, and Malian government troops took control of the town of Hombori on January 24, 2013.  French military forces and Malian government troops took control of the cities of Gao and Timbuktu from Islamist militants on January 26-28, 2013.  AFISMA military personnel from Niger and Chad entered the country in support of the Malian government on January 29, 2013, and took control of the towns of Ansongo and Ménaka.  Former President Pierre Buyoya of Burundi was appointed as AU Special Representative and Head of AFISMA on January 30, 2013.  French troops took control of Kidal from Islamist militants on January 30, 2013, and AFISMA military personnel from Chad entered Kidal on February 2, 2013.  Some 24 Chadian soldiers were killed in an ambush by Islamist militants north of Kidal  on February 5, 2013.  French troops and AFISMA military personnel took control of the town of Tessalit on February 8, 2013.  French and Malian military forces took control of the town of Bourem on February 17, 2013.  The European Union (EU) established the EU Military Training Mission in Mali (EUTM – Mali) on February 18, 2013.  EUTM – Mali consisted of some 580 personnel from 28 EU member-states commanded by Brig. General Francois Lecointre of France.  French troops clashed with Islamist militants in the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains on February 19, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 20 militants and one French soldier.  Malian government troops clashed with Islamist militants in Gao on February 20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of five militants.  The U.S. government deployed 100 military (drone surveillance) personnel to Niger to assist the government of Mali in combating Islamist militants on February 20, 2013.  French and Malian military forces clashed with Islamist militants in Gao on February 21, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 15 militants.  AFISMA military personnel from Chad clashed with Islamist militants in the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains in northern Mali on February 22-24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 93 militants and 23 Chadian soldiers.  French and Chadian military forces clashed with Islamist militants in the Ametetai valley region on March 4-5, 2013.  Islamist militants attacked the airport in Timbuktu on March 20-21, 2013, resulting in the deaths of one Malian government soldier and ten militants.  Islamist militants attacked the city of Gao on March 23-24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four militants, one Malian government soldier, and one civilian.  Islamist militants clashed with Malian government troops in Timbuktu on March 31, 2013, resulting in the deaths of one government soldier and 21 militants.  More than 500 Islamic militants and some 100 Malian government soldiers were killed during the conflict.  Five French military personnel were killed during the military operation between January 11 and March 31, 2013.  Some 404,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict, including 204,000 internally-displaced persons and 200,000 refugees who fled to neighboring Burkina Faso, Niger, and Mauritania.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 1, 2013-present):  The UN Security Council approved the established of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (Mission Multidimensionnelle Intégrée des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation au Mali – MINUSMA) on April 25, 2013.  The functions of MINUSMA included security-related stabilization tasks, protecting civilians & UN personnel, human rights monitoring, protecting humanitarian assistance, and assisting the Malian government with disarmament & demobilization programs.  Two Malian government soldiers and two Islamist militants were killed in a suicide bombing near Gao on May 4, 2013.  One French soldier was killed by a roadside bomb between Zaouaten and Boughessa on April 29, 2013.  Albert Gerard Koenders of the Netherlands was appointed as UN Special Representative to Mali on May 17, 2013.  The joint AU-ECOWAS African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) was transfered to MINUSMA on June 30, 2013.  Some 65 AFISMA personnel were killed during the mission, including 34 Chadians, 28 Nigerians, two Togolese, and one Burkinabé.  MINUSMA, which consisted of an authorized 11,200 military personnel and 1,440 civilian police personnel commanded by Major General Jean Bosco Kazura of Rwanda, was deployed in Mali on July 1, 2013.  The Malian government lifted the state of emergency on July 6, 2013.  Presidential elections were held on July 28 and August 11, 2013.  Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta of the Rally for Mali (Rassemblement pour le Mali – RM) was elected president with 78 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on August 11, 2013.  The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 30 short-term observers led by Louis Michel of Belgium to monitor the presidential elections from June 21 to August 12, 2013.  The African Union (AU) sent nine long-term observers and 27 long-term observers led by former Prime Minister Edem Kodjo of Togo to monitor the presidential elections from June 15 to August 14, 2013.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 250 observers led by former President John Agyekum Kufuor of Ghana to monitor the presidential elections from July 19 to August 12, 2013.  Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta was sworn in as president on September 4, 2013.  Oumar Tatam Ly was appointed as prime minister on September 5, 2013.  Four individuals were killed in a suicide bombing in Timbuktu on September 28, 2013.  French soldiers clashed with Islamic militants in the village of Douaya on October 1, 2013, resulting in the deaths of ten militants.  Islamic militants attacked the town of Gao on October 7, 2013.  Two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Chad and two civilians were killed in a Islamic militant suicide attack in the town of Tessalit on October 23, 2013.  The UN Security Council condemned the suicide attack.  Malian government troops, along with French soldiers and UN peacekeeping soldiers, launched Operation Hydra against Islamic militants in northern Mali on October 24, 2013.  Two French journalists were kidnapped and killed by suspected Islamic militants near the town of Kidal on November 2, 2013.  On November 3, 2013, the French government condemned the killing of the two journalists.  French troops killed Islamic militant leader, Hacene Ould Khalil, in a military operation in northern Mali on November 21, 2013.  Legislative elections were held on November 24, 2013 and December 15, 2013, and the Rally for Mali (Rassemblement pour le Mali – RM) won 66 out of 147 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union for the Republic and Democracy (Union pour la République et la Démocratie – URD) won 17 seats in the National Assembly.  The African Union (AU) sent 22 observers to monitor the legislative elections from November 17 to December 16, 2013.  The ECOWAS sent 100 observers led by Professor Amos Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the first round of legislative elections from November 16 to November 25, 2013.  The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 20 short-term observers led by Louis Michel of Belgium to monitor the legislative elections from October 17 to December 16, 2013.  Former military junta leader, General Amadou Sanogo, was arrested by government troops and charged with “murders and assassinations” on November 27, 2013.  French troops clashed with suspected Islamic militants north of Timbuktu on December 10, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 19 militants.  Two UN peacekeeper from Senegal were killed in a bombing in the town of Kidal on December 14, 2013.  The French government condemned the killing of two UN peacekeepers.  On December 27, 2013, the government announced an investigation of former President Amadou Toumani Touré for “high treason”.  French and Malian government troops killed ten suspected Islamic militants on March 6, 2014.  French military forces killed senior Islamist leader, Oumar Ould Hamaha, in a missile strike in northern Mali on March 14, 2014.  On March 27, 2014, the government swore in a 18-member High Court of Justice to hear the “high treason” case presented against former President Amadou Toumani Touré.  Prime Minister Oumar Tatam Ly resigned, and Moussa Mara was appointed to succeed as prime minister on April 5, 2014.  Four UN peacekeepers from Chad were killed in a suicide attack on their base in the town of Aguelhoc on June 11, 2014.  One French soldier was killed in a suicide bombing north of Gao on July 14, 2014.  The French military operation, Opération Serval, ended on July 15, 2014.  Eight French soldiers were killed during the operation.  The governments of Mali and France signed a defense agreement on July 16, 2014.  Two MINUSMA peacekeeping troops were killed in a suicide attack in the village of Ber on August 16, 2014.  Four MINUSMA peacekeeping troops were killed in a landmine explosion south of the town of Aguelhok on September 2, 2014.  Five MINUSMA peacekeeping troops were killed in an explosion near the town of Aguelhok on September 18, 2014.  Islamic militants ambushed a MINUSMA peacekeeping convoy between the towns of Menaka and Ansongo on October 3, 2014, resulting in the deaths of nine UN peacekeeping soldiers.  Islamic militants attacked a UN base in the town of Kidal on October 7, 2014, resulting in the death of one MINUSMA peacekeeping soldier.  Islamic militants clashed with French troops in northern Mali on October 29, 2014, resulting in the death of one French soldier.  Two government soldiers were killed in an explosion near Almoustrate on November 2, 2014.  Two government soldiers were killed in a landmine explosion near Bourem on November 25, 2014.  French troops killed Ahmed al-Tilemsi, the leader of Al Mourabitoun group, in northern Mali on December 11, 2014.  Mongi Hamdi of Tunisia was appointed as UN Special Representatives in Mali on December 12, 2014.  The UN peacekeeping mission, MINUSMA, consisted of 8,461 troops, 1,033 civilian police personnel, and 513 international civilian staff personnel on December 31, 2014.  MINUSMA fatalities included 44 peacekeeping soldiers.  Aroudeyni Ag Hamatou, mayor of Anderaboucane, and his son were killed in an ambush by Islamic militants on January 1, 2015.  Islamic militants attacked the town of Nampala on January 5, 2015, resulting in the deaths of five individuals.

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Selected Bibliography

Vengroff, Ricahard. 1993. “Governance and the Transition to Democracy: Political Parties and the Party System.” Journal of Modern African Studies 31 (no.4): 541-562.