45. Kenya (1963-present)

 

Crisis Phase (December 12, 1963-September 8, 1971): Kenya formally achieved its independence from the United Kingdom on December 12, 1963.  Jomo Kenyatta became the prime minister, and Queen Elizabeth II became the head of state of the Commonwealth of Kenya.  Malcolm John MacDonald served as Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Kenya from December 12, 1963 to December 12, 1964.  On the same day as independence, ethnic-Somalis (Shifta) initiated an insurgency against the Kenyan government in the North Eastern Region (NER), including the districts of Garissa, Isiolo, Mandera, Marsabit, Moyale, and Wajir.

The Somali government provided military assistance (rifles, grenades, and landmines) to the ethnic-Somali insurgents, which included members of the Northern Frontier District Liberation Front (NFDLF).  Ethnic-Somalia insurgents killed some 40 individuals, including at least one government policeman, near Galole in the NER on December 25, 1963.  Governor-General Malcolm John MacDonald declared a state of emergency in the NER on December 28, 1963, and the House of Representatives approved the state of emergency on December 31, 1963.  Ethnic-Somali insurgents attacked a government police patrol near Buna on January 7, 1964.  Government soldiers mutinied at the Lanet military barracks on January 24-25, 1964.  The Kenyan government requested British military assistance to suppress the mutiny, and one individual was killed during the British military operation.  Ethnic-Somali insurgents attacked government troops near Buna on February 24, 1964, resulting in the death of one government soldier.  Ethnic-Somali insurgents attacked government troops between Wajir and Mandera on April 8, 1964, resulting in the death of one government policeman and one civilian.  Ethnic-Somali insurgents attacked the village of Malele on April 20, 1964, resulting in the deaths of six individuals.  Ethnic-Somali insurgents attacked Kianjoro in Meru District on June 12, 1964, resulting in the deaths of 12 individuals.  Ethnic-Somali insurgents ambushed government troops near Funyatta on June 21, 1964.  A motion of no-confidence against the government of Prime Minister Jomo Kenyatta was defeated in the House of Representatives on October 1, 1964.  The House of Representatives approved amendments to the Constitution on November 3, 1964.  British troops withdrew from Kenya on December 10, 1964.  The Republic of Kenya was formally established on December 12, 1964.  Jomo Kenyatta was elected by the parliament as the first president of the republic.  Vice-President Oginga Odinga was ousted as the deputy president of the Kenya African National Union (KANU) on March 13, 1966.  Vice-President Oginga Odinga resigned on April 14, 1966, and Foreign Affairs Minister Joseph Murumbi was appointed as vice-president on May 3, 1966.  On April 19, 1966, several members of the House of Representatives and Senate resigned from the Kenya African National Union (KANU) to form an opposition political party.  The Kenya People’s Union (KPU) led by Oginga Odinga was formally registered as an opposition political party on May 23, 1966.  The House of Representatives and Senate were combined into the unicameral National Assembly on December 22, 1966.  Daniel arap Moi was appointed as vice-president on January 5, 1967.  On May 25, 1967, a government police vehicle hit a landmine near Garissa, resulting in the death of one individual and injuries to ten individuals.  Government security personnel killed two ethnic-Somali insurgents near Garissa on July 16, 1967.  Government security personnel killed one ethnic-Somali insurgent in Marsabit on July 19, 1967.  Government security personnel killed five ethnic-Somali insurgents in Wajir on July 22, 1967.  Government security personnel killed seven ethnic-Somali insurgents in northern Kenya on July 24, 1967.  Government security personnel killed two ethnic-Somali insurgents near Garissa on July 28, 1967.  Government troops clashes with ethnic-Somali insurgents near Mandera on August 17, 1967, resulting in the deaths of some 40 insurgents and three government soldiers.  President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia mediated the signing of the Arusha Memorandum in Arusha, Tanzania on October 28, 1967.  Kenya and Somalia agreed to re-establish diplomatic relations, suspend emergency regulations on both sides of the border, and end support for ethnic-Somali insurgents.  On February 21, 1969, President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia, Prime Minister Mohamed Egal of Somalia, and President Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya signed an agreement in Nairobi, Kenya.  President Jomo Kenyatta lifted the state of emergency in the North Eastern Region (NER) on February 20, 1969.  Government security personnel killed eleven ethnic-Luo during a visit by President Jomo Kenyatta to Kisumu on October 25, 1969.  Former Vice-President Oginga Odinga, leader of the Kenya People’s Union (KPU), was placed under house arrest on October 27, 1969.  The KPU was banned by the Kenyan government on October 30, 1969.  Legislative elections were held on December 6, 1969, and the Kenya African National Union (KANU) won 158 out of 158 elected seats in the National Assembly.  President Jomo Kenyatta was re-elected without opposition by the National Assembly, and he was sworn in for a second term on January 29, 1970.  Oginga Odinga was released from detention on March 27, 1971, and he rejoined the KANU on September 8, 1971.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 9, 1971-November 2, 1978):  Legislative elections were held on October 14, 1974, and KANU won 158 out of 158 elected seats in the National Assembly.  President Jomo Kenyatta was re-elected without opposition by the National Assembly, and he was sworn in for a third term on November 5, 1974.  President Jomo Kenyatta died on August 22, 1978, and Vice-President Daniel arap Moi was appointed as provisional president on August 23, 1978.  Daniel arap Moi was elected president on October 10, 1978, and he was inaugurated as president on October 14, 1978.

Crisis Phase (November 3, 1978-December 30, 2002):  President Daniel arap Moi declared the Preservation of Public Security Act on November 3, 1978, including a state of a emergency (Part III of the Act).  Several hundred political dissidents were arrested and imprisoned.  Legislative elections were held on November 8, 1979, and KANU won 158 out of 158 seats in the National Assembly.  President Daniel arap Moi was re-elected as president without opposition by the National Assembly, and he was sworn in on December 12, 1979.  The National Assembly, dominated by the Kenya African National Union (KANU) headed by President Daniel Moi, established a one-party political system on June 9, 1982.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion on August 1, 1982, resulting in the deaths of some 200 individuals. Some 650 military personnel were arrested for their involvement in the military rebellion.  Former Vice-President Oginga Odinga was placed under house arrest on November 8, 1982.  President Daniel arap Moi dissolved the National Assembly on July 22, 1983.  Legislative elections were held on September 26, 1983, and KANU won 158 out of 158 seats in the National Assembly.  President Daniel arap Moi was re-elected as president without opposition by the National Assembly, and he was sworn in for a second term on October 12, 1983.  Former Vice-President Oginga Odinga was released from house arrest on October 12, 1983.  Eight individuals were killed in political violence prior to the elections.  Government security personnel massacred some 5,000 ethnic-Somalis in Wajir District in North Eastern Province on February 10, 1984.  Eleven individuals were executed for subversive activities on July 9, 1985. On July 22, 1987, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses against political opponents. President Daniel arap Moi was re-elected as president without opposition by the National Assembly on February 27, 1988.  Legislative elections were held on March 21, 1988, and KANU won 188 out of 188 seats in the National Assembly.  Twenty individuals were killed in the “Saba Saba” riots on July 7, 1990.  The U.S. government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the Kenyan government in August 1990.  The U.S. government lifted military sanctions against the Kenyan government in February 1991.  Several international bilateral and multilateral donors, including the World Bank, U.S., Britain, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Kenyan government on November 26, 1991,  The donors sought to pressure the Kenyan government to adopt economic and political reforms.  President Moi amended the constitution to legalize opposition political parties on December 20, 1991.  President Moi dissolved the National Assembly on January 3, 1992.  The Kenya Movement for Democracy (KMFD) headed by Pius Ouma Oloo was established in opposition to the government of President Moi on January 2, 1992.  Legislative elections were held on December 29, 1992, and the KANU won 100 out of 188 seats in the National Assembly.  President Moi was re-elected with a plurality of 36 percent of the vote on December 29, 1992.  Sixteen individuals were killed in election-related violence. Opposition political parties claimed election fraud. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 33 observers headed by Telford Georges of Tanzania to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from December 16 to December 30, 1992. The COG-Kenya issued a statement on December 29, 1992, which suggested that the elections had not been free and fair. The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 56 observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections. The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) send observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The governments of Canada and Sweden sent four observers to jointly observe the presidential and legislative elections, and the government of the Netherlands sent seven observers to monitor the elections.  The governments of Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Japan, and Switzerland also sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  President Moi suspended the National Assembly after anti-government demonstrations on January 27, 1993.  Some 3,000 individuals were killed, and some 300,000 individuals were displaced in ethnic violence in the Rift Valley Province between 1991 and 1994.  Government troops clashed with demonstrators in Nairobi on July 7-15, 1997, resulting in the deaths of some 20 individuals.  The British government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Kenyan government in July 1995.  On August 13, 1997, ten government policemen were killed during an attack on a police station in the town of Likoni.  The European Union (EU) appealed for peaceful negotiations on August 13, 1997.  Some 100 individuals were killed, and some 120,000 individuals were displaced in ethnic violence in August 1997.  President Moi dissolved the National Assembly on November 10, 1997.  Twelve individuals were killed in ethnic/political violence in western Kenya on November 20, 1997.  Legislative elections were held on December 29, 1997, and the KANU won 107 out of 210 seats in the National Assembly.  The Democratic Party (DP) won 39 seats in the National Assembly, and the National Development Party (NDP) won 21 seats in the National Assembly.  President Moi was re-elected with a plurality of 41 percent of the vote on December 29, 1997, and he was inaugurated for a five-year term on January 5, 1998. The European Union (EU) sent 50 observers to monitor the elections, and issued its report on the elections on January 7, 1998. Ten individuals were killed in election-related violence. Opposition political leaders claimed election fraud, and called for a government of national unity. Some 50 individuals were killed in ethnic/political violence in Laikipia District in January 1998, and some 60 individuals were killed in ethnic/political violence in Njoro district on January 26-27, 1998.  Islamic extremists bombed the U.S. embassy in Nairobi on August 7, 1998, resulting in the deaths of 212 individuals.  Some 27 individuals were killed in ethnic/political violence in northeastern Kenya from June 22-26, 1999. President Moi fired Vice-President George Saitoti on August 30, 2002.  Legislative elections were held on December 27, 2002, and the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) won 132 out of a total of 224 seats in the National Assembly.  KANU won 68 seats in the National Assembly, and the Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FRD) won 15 seats in the National Assembly.  Emilio Mwai Kibaki of the NARC was elected president with 62 percent of the vote on December 27, 2002.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent nine election observers and six staff personnel headed by Chief Adebayo Adedeji of Nigeria to monitor the elections from November 29 to December 28, 2002. The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 133 short-term observers headed by Anders Wijkman of Sweden to monitor the elections from November 19 to January 17, 2003.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 25 observers headed by Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia to monitor the elections. The U.S. government sent 15 observers to monitor the elections.  Emilio Mwai Kibaki was inaugurated for a five-year term as president on December 30, 2002.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 31, 2002-December 29, 2007):  Twelve individuals were killed in religious violence involving the Mungiki sect on January 5-6, 2003.  On December 3, 2004, some 80 members of the parliament, mostly members of KANU and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), walked out of the parliament as a result of a political dispute concerning the draft constitution.  One individual was killed as a result of political violence in Nairobi on July 19-21, 2005.  The parliament approved a draft constitution by a vote of 102 to 61 on July 22, 2005.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Kisumu on October 29, 2005.  The draft constitution was rejected by 58 percent of the voters in a referendum held on November 21, 2005.  The East African Community (EAC) sent observers to monitor the constitutional referendum.  Nine individuals were killed in political violence related to the constitutional referendum.  President Mwai Kibaki dismissed the entire cabinet on November 23, 2005, and he appointed a new cabinet on December 7, 2005.  On November 27, 2005, opposition political parties held rallies in support of new elections despite a government ban on such rallies.  Some 17 individuals were killed in violence the Nairobi area on June 22, 2007.  On October 22, 2007, President Mwai Kibaki dissolved the National Assembly and called for new elections.  Some 16 individuals were killed in pre-election violence across the country.  Legislative elections were held on December 27, 2007, and the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) led by Raila Odinga won 99 out of 207 seats in the National Assembly.  The Party of National Unity (PNU) led by President Mwai Kibaki won 43 seats in the National Assembly.  President Kibaki was re-elected with 46 percent of the vote on December 27, 2007, and he was sworn in for a second term on December 30, 2007.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 13 observers from eleven countries led by Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of Sierra Leone to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from December 20, 2007 to January 2, 2008.  The Pan African Parliament (PAP) sent four observers and two support staff to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from December 22 to December 30, 2007.  The European Union (EU) sent eleven election experts, 38 long-term observers, and 94 short-term observers from 27 countries led by Alexander Graf Lambsdorff of Germany to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from November 14, 2007 to January 12, 2008.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 32 observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.

Crisis Phase (December 30, 2007-April 17, 2008):  The Kenyan Electoral Commission declared Mwai Kibaki as the winner of the presidential election on December 30, 2007, but opposition candidate Raila Odinga accused the government of election fraud and called for peaceful protests.  Some 120 individuals were killed in clashes between government police and protesters in Kenya on December 31, 2007, including 53 individuals killed in Kisumu, 48 individuals killed in Nairobi, seven individuals killed in Nakuru, three individuals killed in Kakamega, and two individuals killed in Mombasa.  Some 50 individuals, mostly women and children, were massacred in Eldoret in western Kenya on January 1, 2008.  Prime Minister Gordon Brown of Britain appealed for peaceful negotiations on January 1, 2008, and the British government pledged one million British pounds in humanitarian assistance to the Kenyan Red Cross on January 3, 2008.  At least 180,000 individuals were displaced in the week following the disputed elections.  On January 10, 2008, the African Union (AU) established a three-member panel chaired by former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan to mediate negotiations between representatives of the government and the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM).  The ODM organized protests against the government beginning on January 16, 2008.  Some 22 protesters were killed in Kisumu, Nairobi, and other locations on January 16-18, 2008.  Some 64 individuals were killed in political violence in Kakuru on January 24-28, 2008.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for an end to the violence in Kenya on February 1, 2008. The UN Security Council called on Kenya’s political leaders to resolve the crisis through “dialogue, negotiation, and compromise” on February 6, 2008.  The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) sent a fact-finding mission to Kenya from February 6 to February 28, 2008.  On February 18, 2008, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice held talks with President Mwai Kibaki and opposition leader Raila Odinga and expressed support for AU mediation led by former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan.  President Mwai Kibaki and Raila Odinga, leader of the ODM, signed the AU-mediated power-sharing agreement, known as the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, in Nairobi on February 28, 2008.  The agreement called for the establishment of the position of prime minister and a coalition government.  On March 18, 2008, the National Assembly approved an amendment to the Kenyan constitution creating the positions of Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister.  Raila Odinga formed a 40-minister coalition government as prime minister on April 13, 2008, and the coalition cabinet headed by Prime Minister Raila Odinga was officially sworn in on April 17, 2008.  Some 1,200 individuals were killed, and more than 500,000 individuals were displaced during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 18, 2008-present):  On October 20, 2008, former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan urged the Kenyan government to establish a special tribunal to investigate and prosecute individuals accused of crimes committed during the recent post-election violence.  On November 18, 2008, the European Union (EU) threatened to imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) if the Kenyan government did not established a special tribunal .  On December 17, 2008, President Mwai Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga signed an agreement to seek the establishment of a special tribunal.  On January 9, 2009, President Mwai Kibaki called on the National Assembly to reconvene in order to approved legislative establishing a special tribunal.  On February 12, 2009, the National Assembly rejected legislative to established a special tribunal.  On February 24, 2009, former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan warned the Kenyan government that he would refer to the International Criminal Court (ICC) the names of ten Kenyans alleged to have committed crimes during the 2007-2008 post-election crisis if a special tribunal was not established by the Kenyan government by March 1, 2009.  Two human rights activists, Oscar Kingara and John Paul Oulo, were assassinated in Nairobi on March 5, 2009.  On June 11, 2009, former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan gave the Kenyan government a new deadline to established a special tribunal to investigate and prosecute crimes committed during the 2007-2008 post-election crisis in Kenya.  On July 9, 2009, Kofi Annan turned over the names of suspects involved in crimes committed during the 2007-2008 post-election crisis in Kenya to the ICC prosecutor.  On July 30, 2009, the Kenyan government (cabinet headed by Prime Minister Raila Odinga) announced that it would not be establishing a special tribunal.  On September 30, 2009, the ICC announced that it would investigate and prosecute alleged crimes committed during the 2007-2008 post-election crisis in Kenya.  On March 31, 2010, the ICC formally launched an investigation into the crimes committed during the 2007-2008 post-election crisis in Kenya.  On April 2, 2010, the National Assembly approved a draft constitution which places limits on presidential power and devolves some powers to local governments.  Six individuals were killed in a bomb attack during a rally held in opposition to the draft constitution in Nairobi on June 13, 2010.  The draft constitution was approved by 69 percent of voters in a referendum held on August 4, 2010.  The East African Community (EAC) sent six observers led by Leone Ndarubagiya of Burundi to monitor the referendum from August 1 to August 6, 2010.  The Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sent 17 observers led by Ambassador Abuzeid El-Hassan of Sudan to monitor the referendum from August 1 to August 6, 2010. President Mwai kibaki formally signed the draft constitution into law on August 27, 2010.  Three individuals were killed in a suspected Islamic militant bombing of a bus station in Nairobi on December 21, 2010.  On March 8, 2011, the ICC formally indicted eight Kenyans, including Deputy Prime Minister Uhuru Kenyatta and Education Minister William Ruto, for alleged crimes against humanity associated with the 2007-2008 post-election crisis in Kenya.  Six individuals were killed in suspected Islamic militant grenade attacks in Nairobi and Machakos on October 24, 2011.  Suspected Islamic militants killed four individuals near the border with Somalia on October 27, 2011.  Two individuals were killed in a suspected Islamic military grenade attack on a church in Garissa in eastern Kenya on November 6, 2011. Three individuals were killed in suspected Islamic militant grenade attacks in Garissa on November 25, 2011.  One government soldier was killed by a landmine in Mandera near the border with Somalia on November 25, 2011.  One government policeman was killed in a suspected Islamic militant bombing near the Dadaab refugee camp near the border with Somalia on December 19, 2011. Six individuals were killed in suspected Islamic militant grenade attacks in Nairobi on March 10, 2012.  Three individuals were killed in a suspected Islamic militant grenade attack in Mombasa on June 24, 2012.  Seventeen individuals were killed in suspected Islamic militant grenade attacks against churches in Garissa on July 1, 2012.  More than 50 individuals were killed in ethnic clashes in Tana River District in Coast Province on August 21-22, 2012.  Following the killing of Muslim cleric Aboud Rogo Mohammed, four individuals were killed in clashes between government police and protesters in Mombasa on August 27-28, 2012.  Twelve individuals were killed in ethnic clashes in Tana River District in Coast Province on September 7, 2012.  Some 30 individuals, including eight government policemen, were killed in ethnic clashes in Tana River District in Coast Province on September 10, 2012.  Ten individuals were killed in a suspected Islamic militant grenade attack on a bus in Nairobi’s Eastleigh District on November 18, 2012.  Three government soldiers were killed by suspected Islamic militants in Garissa on November 19, 2012.  One individual was killed in a suspected Islamic militant bombing in Nairobi’s Eastleigh District on December 5, 2012, and five individuals were killed in an explosion near a mosque in Nairobi’s Eastleigh District on December 7, 2012.  Three individuals were killed by suspected Islamic militants in Garissa on December 20, 2012.  Some 40 individuals, including women and children, were killed in ethnic clashes in Tana River District in Coast Province on December 21, 2012.  Two individuals were killed in a suspected Islamic militant grenade attack in Garissa on January 4, 2013.  Five individuals were killed in a suspected Islamic militant attack on a restaurant in Garissa on January 16, 2013.  Seven individuals were killed in an attack on a mosque in the village of Malele (Maleley) near the border with Somalia on February 21, 2013.  Legislative elections were held on March 4, 2013, and The National Alliance (TNA)-led coalition headed by Uhuru Kenyatta won 167 out of 349 seats in the National Assembly.  The Coalition for Reforms and Democracy (CORD) headed by Raila Odinga won 141 seats in the National Assembly.  Uhuru Kenyatta of the TNA was elected president with 51 percent of the vote on March 4, 2013.  The European Union (EU) sent 65 observers from 28 countries led by Alojz Peterle of Slovenia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from January 19 to April 4, 2013.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the East African Community (EAC), and the Inter-Governmental Authority for  Development (IGAD) sent observers to jointly monitor the presidential and legislative elections from February 28 to March 5, 2013.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 17 observers and six staff personnel led by former president Festus Mogae of Botswana to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from February 25 to March 10, 2013.  The African Union (AU) sent 69 observers (five long-term and 64 short-term) led by former president Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from January 2 to March 15, 2013.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 14 long-term observers and 30 short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  Government police clashed with members of the outlawed separatist group Mombasa Republic Council (MRC) in Malindi on March 28, 2013, resulting in the deaths of six MRC members and one policeman.  On March 30, 2013, the Kenya Supreme Court unanimously upheld the election of Uhuru Kenyatta as president.  Two individuals were killed in clashes between protesters and government police in Kisumu on March 30, 2013.  Uhuru Kenyatta was inaugurated as president on April 9, 2013.  Eight individuals were killed in suspected Islamic militant attacks in Garissa on April 18, 2013.  On May 9, 2013, the Kenyan government asked the UN Security Council to terminate the ICC trials of President Uhuru Kenyatta and Vice President William Ruto.  Four government policemen were killed by suspected Islamic militants in Garissa on August 16, 2013.  Islamic militants attacked the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi on September 21-24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four militants and 63 civilians.  The Islamic militant attack on Westgate shopping mall was condemned by the chairman of the African Union (AU), UN Security Council, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Commonwealth of Nations (CON) Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma, as well as the governments of Australia, Eritrea, France, Nigeria, Somalia, Uganda, and the U.S.  Four individuals were killed in a bus attack in Eastleigh on December 14, 2013.  Government police raided a Muslim mosque in Mombasa on February 2, 2014, resulting in three days of clashes between Muslim protesters and government police.  Three individuals were killed during the clashes.  Government police clashed with anti-corruption protesters in Nairobi on February 13, 2014, resulting in the arrest of five protesters.  Two individuals were killed in a church attack by gunmen in Mombasa on March 23, 2014.  Abubakar Shariff, a prominent Islamist, was shot and killed near Mombasa on April 1, 2014.  One other individual was also killed in the attack.  Four individuals were killed in a car bombing near a government police station in Nairobi on April 23, 2014.  Three individuals were killed in a bus station attack in Mombasa on May 3, 2014.  Three individuals were killed in bus attacks in Nairobi on May 4, 2014.  At least ten individuals were killed in two bombings in Nairobi on May 16, 2014.  At least 12 individuals were killed by suspected Islamic militants in Mandera County in northern Kenya on May 19, 2014.  At least 50 individuals were killed in an attack claimed by the Islamic militant group Al-Shabaab in the town of Mpeketoni in southern Kenya on June 15, 2014.  On June 17, 2014, the Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union (AU), UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, IGAD Executive Secretary Mahboub Maalim, and the U.S. government condemned the attack against the town of Mpeketoni.  At least 15 individuals were killed by Islamic militants in the village of Poromoko in southern Kenya on June 17, 2014.  At least 20 individuals were killed in violence between the Degodia and Gare communities in northern Kenya on June 22, 2014.  Five individuals were killed by attackers in the village of Taa in southern Kenya on June 23, 2014.  On June 26, 2014, Issa Timamy, a regional governor, was charged with terrorism in connection to the attacks in the town of Mpetketoni.  At least 29 individuals were killed by gunmen in the towns of Hindi and Gamba in southern Kenya on July 5, 2014.  On July 7, 2014, members of opposition CORD coalition led by former prime minister Raila Odinga rallied in Nairobi for political dialogue with the government.  Seven individuals, including four government policemen, were killed in a bus attack in Lamu County on July 18, 2014.  Four individuals were killed by gunmen in Mombasa on July 20, 2014.  On July 25, 2014, government police killed two individuals who they suspected of plotting to attack a ferry in Mombasa.  On September 5, 2014, the ICC adjourned indefinitely the case against President Uhuru Kenyatta.  On September 10, 2014, Issa Timamy, a regional governor, was cleared of involvement in the June 2014 attacks in the town of Mpeketoni.  Islamic militants hijacked a bus in Mandera County in northeastern Kenya on November 22, 2014, killing 28 passengers.  On November 22, 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the killing of the 28 bus passengers.  On November 23, 2014, UK Foreign Office Minister Hugo Swire condemned the killing of the 28 bus passengers.  In response to the killing of 28 bus passengers, government security forces attacked an Islamic military camp in Somalia on November 23, 2014, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 militants.  Islamic militants massacred 36 individuals in Mandera County in northeastern Kenya on December 2, 2014.  On December 2, 2014, the South African government condemned the recent killings of innocent civilians in Kenya.  President Uhuru Kenyatta signed an anti-terrorism law on December 19, 2014.  Islamic militants attacked Garissa University in Garissa in northeastern Kenya on April 2, 2015, resulting in the deaths of 142 students, three government soldiers, three government police officers, and four militants.  On April 2, 2015, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, UK Minister for Africa James Duddridge, the Chairperson of the AU Commission, and U.S. President Barack Obama condemned the attack in Garissa.  On April 3, 2015, the UN Security Council and Pope Francis condemned the attack in Garissa.  Islamic militants killed 14 individuals in an attack on a residential complex in the town of Mandera on July 7, 2015.  Mohamed Mohamud, the mastermind of the Garissa University massacre, was killed in a U.S. drone strike in Somalia on July 16, 2015.  Islamic militants killed two bus passengers in Mandera County in northeastern Kenya on December 21, 2015.  Islamic militants killed two government police near the town of El Wak in northeastern Kenya on December 27, 2015, and government troops killed two individuals in Mandera County on December 28, 2015.  Islamic militants killed three individuals in the village of Pandanguo in Lamu County on January 31, 2016.  On April 5, 2016, the ICC dropped the case against Vice-President William Ruto.  Jacob Juma, a businessman and critic of the government, was shot dead in his car in Nairobi on May 6, 2016.  Government troops launched an operation against Islamic militants in southeastern Kenya on May 13, 2016, resulting in the deaths of ten suspected militants.

[Sources: Africa Diary, January 22-28, 1984; Africa News, November 22, 1997, January 5, 1998, January 6, 1998; Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), November 1-30, 1979, August 1-31, 1982, August 15, 1987; African Union (AU) press release, June 17, 2014; Al Jazeera, June 24, 2014, April 6, 2015, July 16, 2015; Associated Press (AP), November 22, 1997, December 31, 2002, January 6, 2003; Banks and Muller, 1998, 492-499; Beigbeder, 1994, 72, 246-247; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), March 16, 2004, December 3, 2004, July 21, 2005, July 22, 2005, August 29, 2005, November 1, 2005, November 21, 2005, November 22, 2005, November 23, 2005, November 27, 2005, November 28, 2005, December 7, 2005, December 8, 2005, October 22, 2007, December 5, 2007, December 30, 2007, December 31, 2007, January 1, 2008, January 3, 2008, January 4, 2008, January 8, 2008, January 17, 2008, January 21, 2008, January 27, 2008, January 29, 2008, February 1, 2008, February 2, 2008, February 7, 2008, February 12, 2008, February 14, 2008, February 18, 2008, February 28, 2008, April 17, 2008, October 20, 2008, November 18, 2008, November 27, 2008, December 17, 2008, January 9, 2009, February 12, 2009, February 13, 2009, February 24, 2009, March 6, 2009, March 10, 2009, June 11, 2009, July 4, 2009, July 9, 2009, July 30, 2009, October 2, 2009, November 5, 2009, March 31, 2010, April 2, 2010, June 13, 2010, August 4, 2010, August 5, 2010, August 27, 2010, December 21, 2010, October 27, 2011, November 6, 2011, November 25, 2011, December 19, 2011, January 23, 2012, January 23, 2012, March 11, 2012, March 12, 2012, June 25, 2012, July 1, 2012, August 22, 2012, August 29, 2012, August 30, 2012, September 7, 2012, September 10, 2012, September 17, 2012, November 19, 2012, November 20, 2012, December 3, 2012, December 16, 2012, December 21, 2012, January 16, 2013, February 21, 2013, March 9, 2013, March 28, 2013, March 30, 2013, April 9, 2013, April 18, 2013, May 9, 2013, August 17, 2013, September 23, 2013, September 25, 2013, June 26, 2014, July 6, 2014, July 20, 2014, September 5, 2014; Carter Center (CC) press release, January 18, 2013, March 6, 2013; Commonwealth of Nations (CON) press releases, reports, and statements, November 29, 2002, December 12, 2007, December 20, 2007, December 29, 2007, January 2, 2007, February 28, 2013, March 6, 2013, September 22, 2013; Degenhardt, 1988, 200-202; East African Standard (Nairobi), November 13, 2002, November 30, 2002; European Union (EU) press releases, reports, and statements, August 13, 1997, November 26, 2002, December 29, 2002, January 1, 2008, April 3, 2008, March 6, 2013, May 29, 2013; Facts on File, October 20, 1978; Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), January 3, 1992; Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) report, March 6, 2010; Irish Times, April 3, 2015; Jessup, 1998, 387-389; Keesing’s Record of World Events, January 24-31, 1970, December 10, 1982, September 1988, December 1992, January 1993, July 1997, December 1997, January 1998; Los Angeles Times (LAT), September 22, 2013; New York Times (NYT), August 11, 1982, November 27, 1991, December 31, 2007, January 11, 2008, February 6, 2008, July 1, 2012, September 21, 2013, September 23, 2013, May 16, 2014, July 6, 2014, December 2, 2014, April 2, 2015, April 4, 2015, December 21, 2015, April 5, 2016; Republic of South Africa press release, December 2, 2014; Reuters, January 31, 1998, June 26, 1999, August 17, 2013, September 22, 2013, February 2, 2014, February 3, 2014, February 5, 2014, March 23, 2014, April 1, 2014, April 4, 2014, April 23, 2014, May 3, 2014, May 4, 2014, May 16, 2014, June 15, 2014, June 16, 2014, June 17, 2014, June 22, 2014, July 6, 2014, July 7, 2014, July 8, 2014, July 19, 2014, July 20, 2014, July 21, 2014, July 24, 2014, July 25, 2014, September 10, 2014, November 22, 2014, April 2, 2015, April 3, 2015, July 7, 2015, July 14, 2015, January 31, 2016, May 6, 2016, May 13, 2016; The Daily Observer (Banjul), December 19, 2002, November 19, 2012; The London Evening Post, November 23, 2014; The Nation (Nairobi), August 30, 2002, November 23, 2002, December 20, 2002, December 30, 2002; UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office statement, April 2, 2015; United Nations News Centre, November 22, 2014; UN Secretary-General statement, April 2, 2015; Vanguard (Lagos), December 30, 2002; Voice of America (VOA), October 27, 2007, February 13, 2014, May 16, 2014, July 6, 2014, July 7, 2014, November 22, 2014, November 23, 2014, December 2, 2014, December 19, 2014, April 4, 2015, April 5, 2015, September 4, 2015, September 21, 2015, December 27, 2015, December 28, 2015; Washington Post (WP), June 22, 2007, January 5, 2008, January 10, 2008, January 28, 2008; Washington Times, April 2, 2015; Xinhua News Agency (XNA), June 17, 2014.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Brown,Stephen. 2001. “Authoritarian Leaders and Multiparty Elections in Africa: How Foreign Donors Help to Keep Kenya’s Daniel arap Moi in Power,” Third World Quarterly, vol. 22 (5), pp. 725-739.

Foeken, Dick. and Ton Dietz. 2000. “Of Ethnicity, Manipulation, and Observation: the 1992 and 1997 Elections in Kenya.” In Jon Abbink and Gerti Hesseling, edited. Election Observation and Democratization in Africa. London and New York: MacMillan Press, Ltd. and St. Martin’s Press, Inc.

Khalif, Zeinabu K. and Gufu Oba. 2013. “‘Gaafa Dhaabaa – the Period of Stop’: Narrating Impacts of Shifta Insurgency on Pastoral Economy in Northern Kenya, c. 1963-2007,” Pastoralism: Research, Policy, and Practice, vol. 3, pp. 1-20.

Parsons, Timothy. 2007. “The Lanet Incident, 24-25 January 1964: Military Unrest and National Amnesia in Kenya,” International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 40 (1), pp. 51-70.

Whittaker, Hannah A. 2012a. “The Socioeconomic Dynamics of the Shifta Conflict in Kenya, c. 1963-1968,” The Journal of African History, vol. 53 (3), pp. 391-408.

Whittaker, Hannah A. 2012b. “Forced Villagization during the Shifta Conflict in Kenya, c. 1963-1968,” International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 45 (3), pp. 343-364.