3. Ethiopia (1942-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (January 31, 1942-December 12, 1960): Ethiopia was liberated from Italian control by British troops, and the British government recognized the independence of Ethiopia on January 31, 1942.  Tigray rebels led by Haile Mariam Redda, known as the Woyane, launched an insurgency against the government of Emperor Haile Selessie in May 1943.  The British Military Mission in Ethiopia (BMME), which was established as a result of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement of 1942, provided military assistance in support of the Ethiopian government.  The U.S and Ethiopian governments signed a mutual assistance agreement on August 9, 1943.  Ethiopian military forces, along with British military forces, suppressed the Woyane rebellion in October 1943, resulting in the deaths of thousands of individuals.  The U.S. government provided some $9 million in economic assistance to the government of Emperor Haile Selassie between April 2, 1948 and March 31, 1955.

Government troops and peasants clashed in Gojjam province on August 2, 1950. The United Nations (UN) General Assembly approved the federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea on December 2, 1950. Government troops suppressed a rebellion, and eight individuals were sentenced to death for their involvement in the rebellion on July 26, 1951. Ethiopia requested military assistance from the U.S. government in October 1951.  Elections to the Representative Assembly were held in Eritrea on March 25-26, 1952. The Representative Assembly adopted a constitution for Eritrea on July 10, 1952, and Emperor Haile Selassie ratified the constitution on August 11, 1952.  Tedla Bairu was elected chief executive of Eritrea on August 28, 1952. Emperor Haile Selassie signed the Eritrean-Ethiopian Federation Act on September 11, 1952, and Eritrea joined the federation with Ethiopia on September 15, 1952.  The U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance (military training for some 4,000 Ethiopian military personnel in the U.S. and some 300 U.S. military advisors in Ethiopia) to the government of Emperor Haile Selassie on May 22, 1953.  The U.S. government provided military assistance to the Ethiopian government from 1953 to 1977, and some 4,000 U.S. military personnel were stationed at the Kagnew communications station in Asmera.  Emperor Haile Selassie issued a revised constitution on November 4, 1955, which prohibited political parties and established a Council of Ministers. The U.S. government provided some $12.5 million in economic assistance to the Ethiopian government between July 1, 1955 and June 30, 1957.  Legislative elections were held between January 9 and March 9, 1957, and independents won 210 out of 210 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Chamber of Deputies convened in Addis Ababa on November 3, 1957.

Crisis Phase (December 13, 1960-March 31, 1961): Government troops commanded by General Merid Mengesha suppressed a military rebellion led by Brigadier General Mengestu Newaye in Addis Ababa on December 13-16, 1960, resulting in the deaths of some 500 individuals.  Legislative elections were held on January 9, 1961, and independents won 250 out of 250 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. On March 31, 1961, General Newaye was executed for his involvement in the December 1960 rebellion. Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 1, 1961-September 11, 1974):  Emperor Haile Selassie appointed Aklilou Habte Wold as prime minister on April 17, 1961.  The Chamber of Deputies voted to abolish the federation with Eritrea on November 14, 1962, and Ethiopia annexed Eritrea on November 16, 1962.  Legislative elections were held on January 9, 1965, and independents won 250 out of 250 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Government military forces suppressed armed peasant resistance in Mota and Bichena districts in Gojjam Province in July and August 1968, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of individuals.  On August 2, 1968, two government military officers were sentenced to death for subversion. Government police and student demonstrators clashed in Addis Ababa on April 3-24, 1969, resulting in the deaths of two students. Legislative elections were held in 1969, and independents won 250 out of 250 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Government police uncovered a plot against the government led by General Takele Woldehawariat on November 27, 1969.  Government police and student demonstrators clashed in Addis Ababa on December 29, 1969, resulting in the deaths of three students.  The Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party (EPRP) was established in opposition to the government on April 2, 1972.  Legislative elections were held between June 23 and July 7, 1973, and independents won 250 out of 250 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Government police and demonstrators clashed in Addis Ababa on February 20-25, 1974, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. Prime Minister Aklilu Habte Wolde resigned on February 27, 1974, and Emperor Haile Selassie appointed Endalakatchew Makonnen as prime minister on February 28, 1974.  Government police and students clashed in Addis Ababa on March 1-11, 1974, resulting in the death of one student.  Prime Minister Endalkatchew Makonnen resigned on July 22, 1974, and Emperor Haile Selassi appointed Mikhail Imru as prime minister on July 23, 1974.

Crisis Phase (September 12, 1974-September 30, 1976):  Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed in a military coup on September 12, 1974, and the Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC) headed by General Aman Michael Andom took control of the government on September 13, 1974.  The Tigray National Organization (TNO) was established in Addis Ababa on September 14, 1974.  President Omar Bongo of Gabon condemned the military coup on September 15, 1974.  Government troops arrested 21 individuals, including several former government officials, on October 10, 1974. General Aman was overthrown on November 22, 1974.  General Aman, Prince Eskinder Desta, and 58 former government officials and military officers were executed in Addis Ababa on November 23, 1974.  The Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), which consisted of Oromo Muslims from eastern Ethiopia and mostly Oromo Christians from western Ethiopia, was established in opposition to the military government in 1974.  Members of the TNO, known as the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), launched a rebellion against the military government on February 18, 1975.  The government of Yugoslavia provided military assistance (supplies) to the military government beginning on April 10, 1975.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion led by Lt. Colonel Negussie Haile and Captain Debessu Beyene on April 20-21, 1975, resulting in the arrests of 20 individuals.  Twenty individuals were executed by the military government on August 3, 1975, and some 200 individuals were executed by the military government between September 1974 and August 1975.  Former Emperor Haile Selassie died in prison on August 27, 1975.  Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Addis Ababa on September 25, 1975, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.  The military government declared a state-of-emergency in Addis Ababa on September 30, 1975.  The military government lifted the state-of-emergency in Addis Ababa on December 6, 1975.  Government troops fired on demonstrators in Addis Ababa on April 21, 1976, resulting in the death of one individual.  On July 10, 1976, Brig. General Getachew Nadew and 19 other individuals were killed by government troops following a failed coup attempt.

Conflict Phase (October 1, 1976-May 28, 1991):  The Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party (EPRP) launched a rebellion against the military government on October 1, 1976.  Brigadier-General Teferi Bante and six members of the PMAC were killed during a power struggle on February 3, 1977, and Lt. Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam took full control of the PMAC on February 4, 1977.  The government of South Yemen expressed support for Lt. Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam on February 7, 1977, and the Libyan government expressed support for Lt. Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam on February 8, 1977. The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) and military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the military government in February 1977.  In April 1977, the Ethiopian government ordered the closure of U.S. military facilities in Ethiopia and the withdrawal of U.S. military advisors from Ethiopia.  Government troops killed some 2,500 individuals throughout the country beginning in April 1977.  The Cuban government deployed 50 military advisers in support of the military government in May 1977.  The government of the Soviet Union provided 60 million tons of military assistance (aircraft, tanks, artillery, and ammunition) to the military government from November 1977 to February 1978.  The Cuban government deployed some 17,000 Cuban troops, including three combat brigades, to Ethiopia beginning in November 1977.  On April 12, 1978, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the military government’s “red terror” against the citizens of Ethiopia.  In November 1978, the governments of Ethiopia and the Soviet Union signed a 20-year Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in which the Soviet Union agreed to provide military assistance (military training for some 1,600 Ethiopian military personnel and some 1,700 Soviet military advisers in Ethiopia) to the military government.  Berhane Meskel Reda Wolde, a leader of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party (EPRP), was executed by the government on July 12, 1979.  The military government released 1,000 political prisoners in September 1981, and the government released 716 political prisoners on September 11, 1982.  A new constitution was proposed on June 7, 1986, and the People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia was established on December 12, 1986.  Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party (EPRP) rebels killed some 40 civilians in Gojjam province on December 27, 1986.  EPRP rebels killed 32 government soldiers on February 19, 1987. The constitution was approved in a referendum on February 1, 1987.  A national legislature (Shengo) was elected on June 14, 1987, and the Shengo convened in Addis Ababa on September 9, 1987. Colonel Mengistu was elected president without opposition by the Shengo on September 10, 1987.  Tigre People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) rebels launched a military offensive against government troops in March 1988.  In order to combat the TPLF, the military government established the Third Revolutionary Army (TRA) commanded by Major-General Mulatu Negash,on April 9, 1988.  The military government declared a state of emergency on May 14, 1988.  The military government launched an aerial bombing campaign and ground military offensive against TPLF-held areas of northern Ethiopia beginning on June 1, 1988.  Government forces attacked several towns, including Harako (June 4, five civilians killed), Seqota (June 8-10, four civilians killed), Amdo (June 10, five civilians killed), Samre (June 14-15, 17 civilians killed), Dande (June 19, 29 civilians killed), Abi Adi (June 20, four civilians killed), Hausien (June 22, more than 1,500 civilian killed), Enticho (June 25, 21 civilians killed), Mai Kenetal (June 25, three civilians killed), Adwa (June 28-29, 50 civilians killed), Hagerai Selam (June 29, 341 civilians killed), Netsege (July 5, 30 civilians killed), Mai Mekden (July 6, ten civilians killed), Adi Nebrid (July 31, 15 civilians killed), Kelish Emni (August 2, 13 civilians killed), Mai Mado (August 16, five civilians killed), and Adi Hagerai (August 29, 23 civilians killed).  Government troops (TRA) launched an unsuccessful military offensive (Operation Adwa) against TPLF rebels from June 19 to August 10, 1988.  TPLF rebels captured the town of Rama from government troops on September 29, 1988, resulting in the deaths of 21 government soldiers.  Government forces bombed the town of Sheraro in northern Ethiopia on December 12, 1988, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals.  Government troops (TRA) launched a military offensive (Operation Aksum I) against TPLF rebels on December 28, 1988 and launched another military offensive (Operation Aksum II) against TPLF rebels on February 8, 1989.  Several opposition groups, including the Tigre People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and Ethiopian Peoples Democratic Movement (EPDM), formally established the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in January 1989.  TPLF rebels defeated the government military offensive following the Battle of Shire on February 19, 1989, resulting in the deaths of at least 10,000 government soldiers.  Some one million individuals fled as refugees to neighboring countries.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Major-General Merid Negusie and Major-General Amha Desta on May 16-18, 1989, resulting in the deaths of several individuals.  Defense Minister Haile Giorgis Habte-Mariam, along with the rebel military leaders, were killed during the rebellion.  The EPRDF launched a military offensive against government troops, and captured the towns of Maichew and Korem by September 8, 1989.  Government forces killed 148 individuals in the town of Chercher in Tigray province on September 9, 1989.  Government forces killed 22 individuals in the town of Gobye in Wollo province on September 9-10, 1989.  After nearly 12 years, the Cuban government withdrew its remaining military personnel from Ethiopia on September 17, 1989.  Government forces killed 31 individuals in the town of Meqele in Tigray province on October 27-29, 1989.  The Italian government facilitated preliminary negotiations between government and TPLF representatives in Rome from November 4, 1989 to March 29, 1990.  Government forces killed 31 individuals in the town of Sheraro in Tigray province on November 21, 1989.  The Oromo People’s Democratic Organization (OPDO) was established in opposition to the government in April 1990.  EPRDF rebels launched a military offensive (Operation Teodros) against government troops in Gonder and Gojjam provinces on February 23, 1991, and EPRDF rebels captured Gondar on March 8-9, 1991.  EPRDF rebels captured Mezezo in the Shoa region on March 19, 1991.  President Mengistu appointed Tesfaye Dinka as prime minister on April 26, 1991.  President Mengistu resigned as head-of-state on May 21, 1991, and Vice-President Tesfaye Gebre-Kidan assumed the presidency on May 22, 1991.  EPRDF rebels captured Adis Alem on May 21, 1991 and Debre Birhan on May 23, 1991.  U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Herman Cohen mediated negotiations between representatives of the government and EPRDF in London on May 27-28, 1991.  The government was overthrown by EPRDF rebels on May 28, 1991.  Some 250,000 individuals were killed, and some one million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 29, 1991-present):  Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) troops and demonstrators clashed in Addis Ababa on May 29-30, 1991, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals. The EPRDF convened a national conference with representatives from more than 20 political movements, including the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), on July 1-5, 1991. The conference established an 87-member Council of Representatives headed by Meles Zenawi of the EPRDF.  The OLF was provided four cabinet positions in the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE).  EPRDF troops and OLF troops clashed in 1991.  The U.S. government provided $95.2 million in economic assistance to the Ethiopian government in June 1992.  The provisional government of Eritrea and the U.S. government mediated a ceasefire on April 15, 1992.  Regional assembly elections were held on June 21, 1992, but the OLF had withdrawn from the elections on June 17, 1992. The Joint International Observer Group (JIOG), which consisted of 74 observers from the U.S., 24 observers from the United Nations (UN), 18 observers from the Organization of African Unity (OAU), and 18 observers from Germany, was established to monitor the regional elections. The OLF withdrew from the TGE on June 23, 1992.  The OLF mobilized some 15,000 troops against the TGE on June 24, 1992. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) established a mission to provide repatriation assistance to some one million Ethiopian refugees in Djibouti, Kenya, and Sudan beginning in 1993. The UNHCR assisted in the repatriation of some 30,000 Ethiopian refugees from Sudan, 32,000 from Djibouti, and 4,000 from Kenya between 1993 and December 1995.  TGE troops and OLF troops engaged in military hostilities.  Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, representing the Carter Center (CC), offered to mediate between the TGE and opposition political groups in March 1994, but the offer was rejected by the TGE.  Elections were held on June 5, 1994, and the EPRDF won 484 out of 547 seats in the Constituent Assembly. Several opposition political parties boycotted the elections.  On October 27, 1994, the government formally charged 73 former military government officials, including Mengistu Haile Mariam, with genocide and human rights violations.  The Constituent Assembly convened on October 28, 1994, and approved a draft constitution on December 8, 1994.  The trial of former military government officials, including Mengistu Haile Mariam, began in Addis Ababa on December 13, 1994.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 7, 1995, and the Oromo Peoples’ Democratic Organization (OPDO) won 176 out of 547 seats in the House of People’s Representatives.  The Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM) won 133 seats in the House of People’s Representatives.  Several opposition political parties boycotted the elections. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent 81 observers to monitor the elections. On May 12, 1995, the OAU mission reported that the elections had been free and fair.  The Council of People’s Representatives proclaimed the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia on August 22, 1995, and elected Meles Zanawi of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party (EPRP) as prime minister on August 23, 1995.  Oromo rebels clashed with government troops in eastern Ethiopia on August 10-19, 1999, resulting in the deaths of some 300 rebels.  Some 2,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1999.  One Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) personnel was killed in eastern Ethiopia on February 7, 2000 (MSF has maintained a mission consisting of ten international personnel and 110 local personnel in Ethiopia since 1985).  Parliamentary elections were held on May 16, 2000, and the Oromo Peoples’ Democratic Organization (OPDO) won 183 out of 547 seats in the House of People’s Representatives.  The Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM) won 143 seats in the House of People’s Representatives.  Several opposition political parties boycotted the elections.  Five individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Local and regional elections were held on March 4, 2001. Seven opposition political parties boycotted the elections.  Government police and students clashed in Addis Ababa on April 17-18, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 41 individuals.  Girma Wolde-Giorgis was elected president by the parliament on October 8, 2001.  After twenty-five years, the U.S. government resumed military assistance (military equipment, military training, and some 100 military advisers) to the Ethiopian government in 2002.  Government police clashed with demonstrators in the town of Teppi on March 11, 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 125 individuals.  Government police clashed with demonstrators in Awassa on May 24, 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 15 individuals.  OLF rebels launched a military offensive against government troops in western Ethiopia beginning in May 2002.  Government troops suppressed the Oromo military offensive on July 4, 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 200 government soldiers and rebels.  The United Ethiopia Democratic Forces (UEDF) began operations in Ethiopia on September 15, 2003.  Several hundred individuals were killed and some 10,000 individuals were displaced in ethnic violence in the Gambella region in western Ethiopia in December 2003 and January 2004.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 15, 2005, and the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), including the Oromo Peoples’ Democratic Organization (OPDO) and the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), won 327 out of 546 seats in the House of People’s Representatives.  The Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD) won 109 seats, and the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (UEDF) won 52 seats in the House of People’s Representatives.  The European Union (EU) sent ten election experts, 50 long-term observers, and 100 short-term observers headed by Ana Gomes of Portugal to monitor the parliamentary elections from March 15 to September 15, 2005.  The African Union (AU) sent 30 observers headed by Amani Waldi Kabourou of Tanzania to monitor the parliamentary elections.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 50 observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from March 19 to May 16, 2005.  The CUD claimed election fraud on June 1, 2005.  Government police clashed with demonstrators in Addis Ababa on June 8, 2005, resulting in the deaths of 26 protesters.  On June 13, 2005, the U.S. government condemned the government for the use of “excessive force” against the demonstrators.  On June 15, 2005, the British government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Ethiopian government.  Government police clashed with demonstrators in Addis Ababa on November 1-2, 2005.  Some 193 civilians and six government police were killed in political violence in 2005.   At least four individuals were killed in a series of explosions in Addis Ababa on May 12, 2006.  On May 26, 2006, the British government agreed to lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Ethiopian government.  More than 100 individuals were killed and some 90,000 individuals were displaced in ethnic violence in southern Ethiopia in May and June 2006.  At least 14 individuals were killed in an ambush of a passenger bus near the village of Bonga in western Ethiopia on June 12, 2006.  Brigadier-General Kemal Geltu defected to the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) in August 2006.  Brigadier-General Hailu Gonfa and Colonel Gemechu Ayana defected to the OLF in September 2006.  At least 15 individuals were killed in Christian-Muslim violence near the town of Jimma in the state of Oromia in September and October 2006.  On December 12, 2006, former Ethiopian leader Mengistu Haile Mariam, who was living in exile in Zimbabwe, was found guilty of genocide following a 12-year trial, and he was sentenced to life-imprisonment on January 11, 2007.  On June 11, 2007, thirty leaders of the opposition Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD), including five individuals who were tried in absentia, were convicted of crimes connected to the mass protests that followed the 2005 parliamentary elections.  All thirty of the convicted CUD leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment on July 16, 2007, but they were all pardoned and freed from prison on July 20, 2007.  President Girma Wolde-Giorgis was re-elected to a second six-year term by the parliament on October 9, 2007. The OLF was blamed for a bomb explosion in Addis Ababa on May 20, 2008, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  On May 26, 2008, former Ethiopian leader Mengistu Haile Mariam was sentenced to death by the Ethiopian Supreme Court, overturning the previous sentence of life imprisonment.  On December 30, 2008, opposition leader Birtukan Medeksa was sentenced to life imprisonment after her previous pardon was revoked by the government.  Some 300 individuals were killed and some 100,000 individuals were displaced as a result of ethnic violence (Borana and Gheri) near the town of Moyale on February 5, 2009.  Two individuals were killed by government police during violence between Christians and Muslims in the town of Dessie on July 1, 2009.  On November 19, 2009, twenty-six individuals were convicted of plotting a coup and assassinations of government officials.  On December 22, 2009, five individuals were sentenced to death and several other individuals were sentenced to life imprisonment for plotting a coup and assassinations of government officials.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 23, 2010, and the EPRDF won 499 out of 546 seats in the House of People’s Representatives.  Opposition political parties won two seats in the House of People’s Representatives.  The European Union (EU) sent ten election experts, 90 long-term observers, and 60 short-term observers from 28 countries led by Thijs Berman of the Netherlands to monitor the parliamentary elections from April 14 to June 21, 2010.  The African Union (AU) sent 59 observers from 25 countries led by former President Ketumile Masire of Botswana to monitor the parliamentary elections from May 16 to May 28, 2010.  Government police killed two individuals in election-related violence in the state of Oromia on May 23-25, 2010.  Opposition leader Birtukan Mideksa was released from prison on October 6, 2010.  Islamic extremists burned several Christian churches in the state of Oromia on March 2-3, 2011, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Some 4,000 individuals fled their homes in the town of Jimma.  In June 2011, more than 500 individuals were sentenced to prison for their involvement in the March 2011 Christian church burnings.  Government police clashed with Muslim protesters in Addis Ababa on July 21, 2012.  Prime Minister Meles Zenawi died of an illness in Brussels, Belgium on August 21, 2012, and Hailemariam Desalegn of the EPRDF was sworn in as prime minister on September 21, 2012.  Government police clashed with Muslim protesters in the town of Kofele in the state of Oromia on March 2-3, 2013, resulting in the deaths of several protesters and government policemen.  Some 10,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Addis Ababa on June 2, 2013.  Mulatu Teshome was elected to a six-year term as president by the parliament on October 7, 2013.  Two Somali suicide bombers were accidentally killed prior to an attempted suicide bombing in Addis Ababa on October 13, 2013.  Four individuals were killed in a vehicle bombing in the western Benishangul Gumuz region on November 5, 2013.  Nine individuals were killed in an attack on a vehicle in the western Benishangul Gumuz region on April 15, 2014.  On April 28, 2014, nine individuals, including six bloggers and three journalists, were charged by the government with attempting to incite violence.  At least nine students were killed by government security forces during protests in Ambo in the state of Oromia on May 2, 2014.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 24, 2015, and the EPRDF won 500 out of the 547 seats in the House of Peoples’ Representatives.  The Somali People’s Democratic Party (SPDP) won 24 seats in the House of Peoples’ Representatives.  The African Union (AU) sent nine long-term observers and 50 short-term observers headed by Hifikepunye Pohamba of Namibia to monitor the parliamentary elections from April 19 to June 7, 2015.  On August 3, 2015, 17 Muslim activists were sentenced to prison terms ranging from seven to 22 years for plotting to establish an Islamic state in Ethiopia.  Government police clashed with student protesters in the state of Oromia beginning in November 12, 2015, resulting in the deaths of dozens of protesters.  On February 28, 2016, a government minister accused leaders of the Oromo Federal Congress (OFC) of instigating the recent violence in the state of Oromia.

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Selected Bibliography

Clapham, Christopher. 1968. “The Ethiopian Coup d’ Etat of December 1960. The Journal of Modern African Studies,  vol. 6 (4), pp. 495-507.

Gilkes, Patrick. 1975. The Dying Lion: Feudalism and Modernization in Ethiopia. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Harbeson, John W. 1998. “Elections and Democratization in Post-Mengistu Ethiopia.” In Kumar, Krishna, editor. Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, pp. 111-131.

Lyons, Terrence. 1996. “Closing the Transition: The May 1995 Elections in Ethiopia.” Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 34 (1), pp. 121-142.

Marcus, Harold G. 1983. Ethiopia, Great Britain, and the United States: The Politics of Empire. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.

Markakis, John and Asmelash Beyene. 1967. “Representative Institutions in Ethiopia,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 5 (2), pp. 193-219.

Schwab, Peter, editor. 1972. Ethiopia & Haile Selassie. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Tareke, Gebru. 2004. “From Af Abet to Shire: The Defeat and Demise of Ethiopia’s ‘Red’ Army, 1988-1989,” Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 42 (2), pp. 239-281.