20. Congo-Kinshasa/Zaire/Democratic Republic of Congo (1960-present)

Crisis Phase (June 30, 1960-July 11, 1960):  Congo-Kinshasa formally achieved its independence from Belgium on June 30, 1960.  The Congolese army mutinied against the government on July 5, 1960.  Some 10,000 Belgian troops intervened to protect the life and property of Belgians in the province of Katanga beginning on July 8, 1960.  The government requested military assistance from the United Nations secretary-general on July 10, 1960.  Moise Tshombe, the provincial leader of Katanga province, declared the secession of Katanga province from Congo-Kinshasa on July 11, 1960.

Conflict Phase (July 12, 1960-January 17, 1963):  President Joseph Kasavubu and Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba appealed to Ghana and the UN Security Council for military assistance on July 12, 1960. The government requested military assistance from Ghana on July 13, 1960.  On July 14, 1960, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Operation in the Congo (Organisations des Nations Unities au Congo – ONUC) to ensure the withdrawal of Belgian forces from the Republic of the Congo; to assist the Government in maintaining law and order; to assist in maintaining the territorial integrity and political independence of the Congo; to prevent the occurrence of civil war; and to secure the removal from the Congo of all mercenaries, foreign military, paramilitary and advisory personnel not under the United Nations Command.  Ghana deployed troops in support of the government on July 15, 1960, and Ghanian troops joined ONUC on August 12, 1960.  ONUC, which consisted of 19,828 peacekeeping troops from 30 countries commanded by Lieutenant-General Carl C. von Horn of Sweden, was deployed in the Congo on August 12, 1960. The United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning on July 17, 1960.  Prime Minister Lumumba requested and received military assistance (weapons and 1,000 military advisors) from the Soviet Union.  Prime Minister Lumumba declared martial law on August 17, 1960.  Belgian troops were withdrawn from Katanga province on September 1, 1960.  On September 5, 1960, President Kasavubu dismissed Prime Minister Lumumba.  Former Prime Minister Lumumba was captured and executed by Katangese troops near Élisabethville on January 17, 1961.  The UN Security Council appealed for the withdrawal of foreign troops from Congo-Kinshasa, and authorized ONUC to use military force to enforce peace and security in the Congo on February 21, 1961.  The UN provided civilian police assistance (training) to the government beginning in February 1961.  President Kasavubu demanded the immediate expulsion of foreign mercenaries from Katanga, and some 11,000 UN troops entered Katanga on August 28, 1961.  UN troops and Katangan rebels agreed to a ceasefire that went into effect on September 21, 1961.  Thirteen Italian airmen serving in the UN peacekeeping mission were killed by Congolese militiamen in Kindu on November 11-12, 1961.  The UN Security Council approved a resolution on November 24, 1961, which expressed support for the government of Congo-Kinshasa.  UN troops and Katangan rebels resumed military hostilities on December 5, 1961.  Moise Tshombe and Prime Minister Cyrille Adoula agreed to a ceasefire that went into effect on December 18, 1961.  Government troops and Katangan rebels resumed military hostilities on January 13, 1962.  The parties agreed to a ceasefire that went into effect on February 15, 1962.  Moise Tshombe and Prime Minister Adoula held negotiations in Leopoldville from March 15 to April 15, 1962 and May 22 to June 26, 1962.  The parties resumed military hostilities on October 20, 1962.  UN troops and Katangan rebels clashed in Elisabethville on December 27-29, 1962, resulting in the deaths of 75 Congolese and nine UN troops.  Moise Tshombe offered to end the Katangan secession on January 15, 1963.  Katangan rebels surrendered Kolwezi to UN troops on January 17, 1963. Some 100,000 individuals, including 50 Belgian soldiers, were killed during the conflict.  Several thousand Congolese fled as refugees to neighboring countries, including Burundi, Central African Republic, and Tanzania.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 18, 1963-July 4, 1967):  The U.S. government provided military assistance to the government beginning in 1963.  Katangan police and government troops clashed in Elisabethville on February 26, 1963, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. ONUC peacekeeping troops completed their withdrawal from Congo-Kinshasa on June 30, 1964.  Some 250 ONUC personnel, including 245 military personnel, were killed during the mission.  Some 400 Nigerian civilian police were deployed to maintain law and order in Leopoldville, Bukavu, Luluabourg, and Stanleyville beginning on July 1, 1964.  Prime Minister Adoula resigned in June 1964.  A new constitution was approved by 91 percent of voters in a referendum held from June 25 to July 10, 1964.  Moise Tshombe formed a government as prime minister.  Congolese rebels (Conseil National de Liberation-CNL) commanded by General Nicholas Olenga received military assistance from the United Arab Republic (UAR), Algeria, Ghana, Kenya, and Sudan, and captured Stanleyville on August 4, 1964.  Christopher Gbenye proclaimed himself president of a provisional revolutionary government on September 7, 1964.  CNL rebels took more than 1,000 foreign nationals hostage in Stanleyville on September 24, 1964.  Belgian troops and government troops recaptured Stanleyville and released the hostages on November 24, 1964.  The U.S. government provided military airlift to Belgian soldiers.  Legislative elections were held between March 18 and April 30, 1965, and the Congolese National Convention (CNC) led by Prime Minister Moise Tshombe won 80 out of 167 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Congolese Democratic Union (CDU) won ten seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Prime Minister Tshombe was dismissed by President Joseph Kasavubu on October 13, 1965.  Evariste Kimba formed a government as prime minister on October 18, 1965, but the parliament failed to confirm the government in a vote on November 14, 1965.  President Kasavubu was deposed in a military coup led by General Joseph Desire Mobutu on November 25, 1965.  General Mobuto ruled under a state of emergency for five years.  Colonel Leonard Mulamba formed a government as prime minister on November 28, 1965.  Nigerian civilian police were withdrawn from the country on December 31, 1965.  General Mobutu established a presidential political system, and he named himself president on March 1, 1966.  The government suppressed a plot against President Mobutu on May 24, 1966.  Former Prime Minister Evariste Kimba and three other individuals were arrested in Leopoldville on May 30, 1966, and the individuals were executed in Leopoldville on June 2, 1966.  Some 3,500 supporters of former Prime Minister Moise Tshombe led by Colonel Tsmivola Tsotipola rebelled against the government of President Mobutu in Stanleyville (Kisangani) beginning on July 23, 1966. Government troops and rebels clashed in Kisangani on July 23-20, 1966, resulting in the deaths of ten government soldiers and five rebels. Government troops launched a military offensive against rebels in Kisangani on September 23, 1966, and government troops suppressed the rebellion on October 4, 1966.  Moise Tshombe was tried in absentia by a military court and sentence to death on March 13, 1967.  A new constitution was approved by 98 percent of voters in a referendum held on June 4-16, 1967.  The government formally promulgated the new constitution on June 24, 1967, which provided for the Popular Movement of the Revolution (Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution – MPR) as the only legal political party.  Some 5,500 individuals were killed in political violence between January 1963 and July 1967.

Conflict Phase (July 5, 1967-November 4, 1967):  Congolese rebels and foreign mercenaries led by Colonel Leonard Monga and Colonel Jean Schramme of Belgium rebelled against the government in eastern Congo beginning on July 5, 1967.  President Mobutu declared a state-of-emergency on July 5, 1967, and requested military assistance from the U.S. government on July 6, 1967.  Rebels captured Kisangani and Bukavu, but government troops recaptured Bukavu from the rebels on July 7, 1967.  The U.S. government expressed support for the government, and provided military assistance (three cargo planes and 150 military personnel) to the government between July 6 and August 5, 1967.  The UN Security Council condemned the rebellion on July 10, 1967.  Rebels captured Bukavu from government troops on August 9, 1967. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) established a ten-member conciliation commission chaired by President Ismael El Azhari of Sudan on September 14, 1967. Some 950 rebels and 130 mercenaries fled into Rwanda on November 4, 1967.  Some 2,000 individuals, including 700 government troops, were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (November 5, 1967-March 7, 1977): The Organization of African Unity (OAU) conciliation commission requested the opportunity to question the mercenaries, but the Rwandan government refused the request and refused to send them back to Congo-Kinshasa for trial. The OAU conciliation commission mediated an agreement between Rwanda and Congo-Kinshasa in March 1968, which provided for the repatriation of the mercenaries by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).  Former Prime Minister Moise Tshombe died in detention in Algeria on June 29, 1969.  President Joseph Mobutu was re-elected without opposition to a seven-year term on November 1, 1970.  Legislative elections were held on November 15, 1970, and the Popular Movement of the Revolution (Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution – MPR) won 244 out of 244 seats in the National Assembly.  The country’s official name was changed to the Republic of Zaire on October 27, 1971, and President Joseph Mobutu changed his name to Mobutu Sese Seko in 1972.  An amended constitution was approved by 78 percent of voters in a referendum held on June 24, 1973.  The U.S. government provided some $50 million in military assistance and $50 million in economic assistance to the government in 1976.

Conflict Phase (March 8, 1977-May 26, 1977):  Some 2,000 Katangan rebels led by General Nathanael Mbumba invaded Shaba Province (formerly Katanga Province) from Angola on March 8, 1977. The Congolese National Liberation Front (Federation Nationale de Liberacion Congolaise – FNLC) claimed responsibility for the invasion.  President Mobutu Sese Seko accused the governments of Angola, Cuba, and the Soviet Union of supporting the invasion, although Angola denied the accusation on March 11, 1977. The U.S. government provided military assistance ($15 million in non-lethal military equipment and spare parts for C-130 transport aircraft) to the government beginning on March 15, 1977.  The Belgian government provided military assistance (weapons) to the government beginning on March 17, 1977. FNLC rebels captured Mutshatsha in Shaba province on March 24, 1977.  The governments of Cuba and the Soviet Union provided military assistance to the FNLC. Joseph Garba, Commission for External Affairs of Nigeria, attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on March 24, 1977. President Mobutu Sese Seko appealed to Prime Minister Seewoosagur Ramgoolam of Mauritius, president of the OAU, for military assistance on April 2, 1977. Some 1,500 Moroccan troops commanded by Colonel Major Abdelkhader Loubaris were deployed in support of the government on April 9, 1977. President Anwar Sadat of Egypt offered military assistance to the government on April 10, 1977, and 50 Egyptian military pilots and mechanics were deployed in support of the government on May 2, 1977. Sudan offered military assistance to the government on April 11, 1977.  The French government provided military assistance (military transport aircraft and 170 military personnel) to the government on April 10-16, 1977.  The government of West Germany provided humanitarian assistance (food and medical supplies) to the government beginning on April 14, 1977. President Idi Amin of Uganda offered military assistance to the government on April 22, 1977, and he ordered the mobilization of “six Ugandan battalions” in support of Zairean government troops on May 1, 1977.  The Iranian government offered economic assistance to the government on April 25, 1977.  The Chinese government expressed support for the government on April 26, 1977, and the Chinese government agreed to provide military assistance (weapons) to the government.  Government troops and Moroccan troops recaptured Sanikosa on May 7, 1977 and Kasaji on May 11, 1977.  The government of the Central African Republic offered military assistance to the government on May 13, 1977. Government troops captured Sandoa and Kapanga on May 25-26, 1977. Moroccan troops were withdrawn on May 25, 1977. Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the conflict, including 219 Zairean government soldiers and seven Moroccan soldiers. Some 220,000 individuals fled as refugees to Angola.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 27, 1977-May 10, 1978): Legislative elections were held on October 15-16, 1977, and the MPR won 252 out of 252 seats in the National Assembly.  President Mobutu Sese Seko was re-elected without opposition on December 3, 1977.  Government troops suppressed an uprising by members of the Nzambi Mpunga sect led by Martin Kasongo in Bandundu Province in January 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 700 individuals.  Martin Kasongo and 13 other individuals were executed by the government on January 25, 1978.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion on February 20-25, 1978. Thirteen individuals were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on March 17, 1978. Some 2,000 individuals were killed in political violence between May 1977 and May 1978.

Conflict Phase (May 11, 1978-July 28, 1978): Some 4,000 Congolese National Liberation Front (Federation Nationale de Liberacion Congolaise – FNLC) rebels led by General Mbumba invaded the Shaba province beginning on May 11, 1978. The government requested assistance from France, Belgium, U.S., and China on May 14, 1978. On May 17, 1978, the French government decided to send paratroopers to Zaire. Some 1,200 French troops and 1,750 Belgium troops were airlifted by U.S. government military aircraft (100 U.S. military personnel) to Zaire on May 18-20, 1978. French troops killed some 300 rebels near Kolwezi on May 19-21, 1978. French and Belgium troops were replaced by the Inter-African Force (IAF) beginning on June 5, 1978. The IAF, which consisted of 2,684 peacekeeping troops from Morocco (1,511 soldiers commanded by Colonel Major Abdelkhader Loubaris), Senegal (500 soldiers), Central African Empire (300 soldiers), Togo (159 soldiers), Ivory Coast (110 medical personnel), Egypt (60 soldiers), and Gabon (44 soldiers), was responsible for maintaining law and order in the Shaba Province.  U.S. government military aircraft transported the IAF peacekeeping force to Zaire, as well as military trucks and jeeps from Togo, on June 13, 1978. The governments of France and Belgium provided military assistance (military training) to the government of Zaire.  President Mobutu and President Neto of Angola signed the Brazzaville Agreement on July 28, 1978, which provided for the ending of subversive activities against the other country. Some 900 individuals were killed during the conflict, including 300 civilians, 220 government soldiers, 200 rebels, 150 Europeans, and four French soldiers. Some 150,000 individuals fled as refugees to neighboring countries during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 29, 1978-September 30, 1996): The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) established a mission consisting of 10 personnel to provide repatriation assistance to refugees in 1979. The Council for the Liberation of the Congo-Kinshasa (Conseil pour la Liberation du Congo-Kinshasa – CLC) was established in opposition to the government of President Mobutu in Brussels in November 1978. On February 6, 1979, the Belgian government announced the deployment of 250 troops in support of the government. The IAIF peacekeeping mission completed its withdrawal from Zaire on August 14, 1979.  Legislative elections were held on September 18-19, 1982, and the MPR won 310 out of 310 seats in the National Assembly.  The Congolese Front for the Restoration of Democracy (Front Congolais pour le Retablissment de la Democratie – FCRD) was established in opposition to the government of President Mobutu in Brussels in October 1982. Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for mistreatment of political prisoners on March 1, 1983. Some 10,000 individuals were killed in political violence between 1978 and 1983.  President Mobutu Sese Seko was re-elected without opposition in a presidential election held on July 27, 1984. Congolese rebels invaded the Shaba province from Tanzania on November 13, 1984, but the rebels were defeated by government troops on November 15, 1984. Some 125 individuals were killed during the military hostilities.  President Mobutu Sese Seko was inaugurated to a third term on December 5, 1984. Congolese rebels invaded the Shaba province from Tanzania on June 16, 1985, but the rebels were defeated by government troops on June 17, 1985. Some 50 individuals were killed during the military hostilities. Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance beginning in 1985. Opposition groups formed a government-in-exile in Switzerland in September 1987.  Legislative elections were held on September 6, 1987, and the MPR won 210 out of 210 seats in the National Legislative Council.  President Mobutu Sese Seko announced an end to the one-party political system on April 24, 1990.  The Belgian government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on May 25, 1990.  At least eight individuals were killed in political violence in Kinshasa and Matadi on December 3, 1990.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (restrictions on foreign assistance) against the government in 1991.  Several individuals were killed during violent riots in Mbuji-Mayi on April 13-17, 1991.  Some 30 individuals were kill in political violence in Kivu on June 1, 1991.  The National Conference (NC) convened to revise the constitution on August 7, 1991.  At least 200 individuals were killed when government soldiers rioted in Kinshasa on September 23-26, 1991. Some 1,000 Belgian troops and 950 French troops were deployed in the country to protect Belgian and French nationals on September 24, 1991.  Étienne Tshisekedi, leader of the Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDSP), was appointed as prime minister on September 30, 1991, and he was sworn in as prime minister on October 16, 1991.  President Mobutu Sese Seko dismissed Prime Minister Étienne Tshisekedi on October 21, 1991, and appointed Bernardin Mungul Diaka as prime minister on October 23, 1991.  The French government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on October 25, 1991, and withdrew its troops from the country on October 30, 1991.  Belgium withdrew its troops from the country on November 4, 1991.  Opposition groups established a rival government headed by former Prime Minister Tsisekedi on November 1, 1991.  President Mobutu Sese Seko appointed Jean Nguza as prime minister on November 25, 1991, and Prime Minister Nguza suspended the NC on January 14, 1992. The European Community (EC) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on January 22, 1992.  The government suppressed a military rebellion on January 22-23, 1992, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Government troops suppressed demonstrations in Kinshasa on February 16, 1992, resulting in the deaths of at least 16 individuals.  The NC reconvened on April 6, 1992, but President Mobutu suspended the conference on June 21, 1992. The NC elected Étienne Tshisekedi as prime minister on August 15, 1992.  Five individuals were killed in political violence in Shaba province in August 1992.  President Mobutu Sese Seko dismissed the government of Prime Minister Etienne Étienne Tshisekedi on December 1, 1992.  Government troops suppressed demonstrations in Kinshasa on December 18, 1992, resulting in the deaths of at least eight individuals.  Government soldiers mutinied and rioted in Kinshasa on January 28-30, 1993.  Several hundred individuals, including French Ambassador Philippe Bernard, were killed in the violence.  The U.S. government imposed additional economic sanctions (visa restrictions) against government officials in Zaire and military sanctions (ban on arms sales) in 1993.  The EC imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and non-government groups in Zaire on April 7, 1993.  Government troops killed 15 refugees in the Katale refugee camp in North Kivu province on November 27, 1994.  Some 40 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in Bukavu on September 18, 1996.  Some 150 civilians and three government soldiers were killed by Tutsi rebels in the village of Epombo in South Kivu province on September 19, 1996.  Tutsi rebels attacked and killed 14 civilians in Aboke in South Kivu province on September 23, 1996.  Government troops attacked and killed some 100 ethnic Tutsis in the village of Lutabura in South Kivu province on September 30, 1996.  Some 20,000 individuals were killed in political violence between July 1978 and September 1996.

Conflict Phase (October 1, 1996-May 16, 1997):  Pro-Tutsi Alliance for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (AFDL) headed by Laurent Kabila rebelled against the government beginning on October 1, 1996.  The Rwandan government deployed troops in support of AFDL rebels.  AFDL rebels killed 19 individuals in Kidote in South Kivu province on October 6, 1996.  Rwandan government troops and AFDL rebels attacked Lemera, Minembwe, and Munyaka in South Kivu on October 6-10, 1996, resulting in the deaths of more than 150 individuals.  Rwandan government troops launched a military offensive against Hutu refugees in eastern Congo on October 12, 1996.  Rwandan government troops and AFDL rebels attacked the Kibumba refugee camp on October 25, 1996, resulting in the displacement of some 200,000 individuals.  Rwandan government troops and AFDL rebels captured Goma on November 2, 1996.  Some 20 civilians were killed in ethnic violence in Kitshanga and Masisi in North Kivu province on November 6-7, 1996.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on November 15, 1996.  Rwandan government troops and AFDL rebels killed some 500 civilians in Chimanga refugee camp in Bukavu on November 18, 1996.  AFDL rebels captured Kindu on February 28, 1997 and Kisangani on March 15-16, 1997.  Representatives of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and UN mediated negotiations between the parties in Lome, Togo on March 26-27, 1997.  President Mobuto appointed Étienne Tshisekedi as prime minister on April 2, 1997.  President Mobuto declared a state of emergency on April 8, 1997.  AFDL rebels captured Lubumbashi on April 9, 1997.  President Nelson Mandela of South Africa mediated negotiations between government and AFDL representatives between April 16 and May 15, 1997. President Mobuto was overthrown by AFDL rebels on May 16, 1997. The country was renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Some 200,000 individuals were killed, and some 250,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 17, 1997-August 1, 1998):  The governments of Angola, Rwanda, and Uganda provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of the DRC on May 19, 1997.  The government suspended political party activities on May 26, 1997.  Members of the AFDL killed more than 100 civilians in the town of Uvira on May 26, 1997.  Laurent Kabila was sworn in as president on May 29, 1997. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission consisting of some 30 international personnel and 260 local staff to provide humanitarian assistance to civilians. The International Rescue Committee (IRC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to civilians. One member of the ICRC mission was killed on January 12, 1998.

Conflict Phase (August 2, 1998-December 17, 2002):  Tutsi rebels led by Emile Ilunga began a rebellion against the government in the eastern DRC on August 2, 1998.  The European Union (EU) appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on August 11 and August 27, 1998.  Emile Ilunga formally established the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD) in opposition to the government on August 12, 1998.  The Namibian government deployed some 2,000 troops in support of the government beginning on August 19, 1998.  The government of Zimbabwe deployed some 12,000 troops in support of the government beginning on August 20, 1998.  The Rwandan government appealed for a ceasefire on August 21, 1998.  President Nelson Mandela of South Africa offered to mediate in the dispute on August 21, 1998.  The Angolan government deployed 8,000 troops in support of the government beginning on August 21, 1998.  RCD rebels killed 37 individuals in Kasika on August 24, 1998.  Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned RCD rebels on August 27, 1998 for the massacre in Kasika.  Prime Minister Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia began mediation efforts on August 29, 1998.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire and the withdrawal of foreign troops from the Democratic Republic of Congo on August 31, 1998.  Rwanda deployed some 25,000 troops in support of the rebels beginning on August 1998.  Chad deployed 1,000 troops in support of the government beginning on September 28, 1998.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) appointed Emile Derlin Zinsou of Benin and Padre Matteo Zuppi of Italy as special envoys to the DRC on October 1, 1998.  The presidents of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania appealed for a ceasefire on October 18, 1998.  President Kabila accused Rwanda and Uganda of supporting the RCD rebels.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) appointed President Frederick Chiluba of Zambia to mediate in the dispute.  President Chiluba, representing the SADC, began mediation efforts on September 7, 1998. Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania jointly appealed for a ceasefire on October 18, 1998. Some 300,000 Congolese were internally displaced within the country. Some 135,000 Congolese were refugees in neighboring countries in December 1998, including 60,000 in Tanzania, 35,000 in Rwanda, 12,000 in Zambia, 10,000 in Angola, 6,000 in Uganda, 5,000 in Central African Republic, 5,000 in Burundi, and 3,000 in Sudan.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on February 17, 1999. Several African countries (Cameroon, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Sao Tome and Principe) jointly appealed for a ceasefire in the Democratic Republic of Congo on February 26, 1999. On April 1, 1999, President Kabila requested that President Gnassibe Eyadema of Togo mediate in the dispute.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Moustapha Niasse of Senegal as UN special envoy to the DRC on April 5, 1999.  The UN Security Council demanded a ceasefire in the conflict on April 9, 1999. Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania appealed for a ceasefire in the conflict on May 5, 1999.  Chad withdrew its troops from the DRC on May 26, 1999.  Congolese Liberation Movement (MLC) rebels captured the town of Gbadolite on July 4, 1999. President Chiluba of Zambia mediated a ceasefire agreement in Lusaka, Zambia on July 11, 1999.  On July 12, 1999, the UN Security Council appealed to RCD rebels and MLC rebels to signed the ceasefire agreement.  The EU appealed to RCD and MLC rebels for a cessation of military hostilities on July 16, 1999. Rwanda and Uganda deployed troops in the DRC in August 1999. Jean-Pierre Bemba, leader of the MLC, signed the ceasefire agreement on August 1, 1999.  RCD representatives signed the ceasefire agreement in Lusaka, Zambia on August 31, 1999.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Kamel Morjane of Tunisia as UN Special Representative in the DRC on November 13, 1999. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) established the 10-member Joint Monitoring Commission (JMC) to monitor the ceasefire agreement beginning on November 16, 1999.  The OAU JMC included 33 military observers from Algeria, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, and Zambia commanded by General Rachid Lallali of Algeria.  On November 30, 1999, the UN Security Council deployed the United Nations Observer Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) to monitor the ceasefire agreement, verify the disengagement of military forces, and facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance.  MONUC consisted of some 18,650 peacekeeping troops and 700 military observers from 67 countries commanded by Major-General Mountaga Diallo of Senegal (March 2000-December 2003), Major-General Somaila Iliya of Nigeria (January 2004-February 2005), Lt. General Babcar Gaye of Senegal (March 2005-October 2008, November 2008-June 2010), and Lt. General Vicente Diaz de Villegas of Spain (October 2008).  MONUC also consisted of some 1,225 civilian police personnel from 34 countries commanded initially by Police Commissioner Jorgen Kent of Sweden (November 2001-January 2002).  HRW condemned the RCD for human rights abuses on February 2, 2000.  The UN Security Council appealed for ceasefire on June 16, 2000.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed General Abdulsalami Abubakar of Nigeria as special envoy to the DRC on August 18, 2000.  The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) agreed to provide humanitarian assistance to some 100,000 refugees in Congo-Brazzaville on November 21, 2000.  The OAU JMC was disbanded on November 30, 2000.  President Kabila died of gunshot wounds inflicted by a bodyguard on January 16, 2001. Algeria, Canada, and Nigeria condemned the killing of President Kabila on January 16, 2001.  The parliament approved Major General Joseph Kabila as president on January 24, 2001, and Major General Kabila was sworn in as president on January 26, 2001.  On February 22, 2001, the UN Security Council demanded that the parties to the conflict disengage their military forces.  Six ICRC personnel were killed in Ituri province on April 26, 2001.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Amos Namanga Ngongi of Cameroon as UN Special Representative in the DRC on August 2, 2001. Namibia completed the withdrawal of its troops from the country on September 3, 2001 (some 100 Namibian soldiers were killed during the intervention).  The OAU appointed Sir Ketumile Masire, former president of Botswana, as facilitator of the Inter-Congolese Dialogue (ICD) which was formally launched on October 15, 2001.  The government of Zimbabwe began withdrawing troops from the DRC on February 20, 2002.  On March 19, 2002, the UN Security Council condemned the resumption of fighting in the community of Moliro in eastern DRC.  President Kabila and Jean Pierre Bemba, leader of the MLC, signed a power-sharing agreement facilitated by Ketumile Masire, representing the OAU, in Sun City, South Africa on April 19, 2002.  The RCD rejected the agreement on April 20, 2002. Some 200 individuals were killed in political violence in Kisangani in May 2002.  On June 13, 2002, the European Parliament (EP) condemned the killings in Kisangani.  South Africa mediated an agreement between the DRC government and Rwandan government on July 30, 2002, which provided for the withdrawal of Rwandan troops and the repatriation of several thousand Rwandan rebels from the DRC.  Zimbabwe withdrew its remaining 3,000 troops from the country beginning on August 8, 2002.  The DRC government and Ugandan government signed an agreement on August 15, 2002, which provided for the withdrawal of the some 8,000 Ugandan troops from the DRC.  Uganda completed the withdrawal of its troops from the country on September 4, 2002.  Rwanda completed the withdrawal of its troops from the country on October 5, 2002.  UN Envoy Moustapha Niasse of Senegal and President Thabo Mbeke of South Africa mediated negotiations with RCD and MLC representatives in Pretoria, South Africa beginning on October 26, 2002.  Government, RCD, and MLC representatives signed a peace agreement, including a power-sharing deal, in Pretoria, South Africa on December 17, 2002.  Some 3.5 million individuals died, and more than three million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 18, 2002-December 26, 2006):  On January 7, 2003, twenty-six individuals were convicted and sentenced to death for their involvement in the assassination of President Laurent Kabila.  Several hundred individuals were killed in political violence in northeastern DRC on February 24-25, 2003.  On May 30, 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of EU peacekeeping troops in the DRC.  On June 12, 2003, the Council of the EU established the EU Interim Emergency Multinational Force in the Democratic Republic of Congo (IEMF-DRC) to protect humanitarian assistance and to protect the airport and refugee camps in Bunia.  The IEMF-DRC (Operation Artemis) consisted of some 2,060 peacekeeping troops from 12 EU member-states and six other countries commanded by General Bruno Neveux of France (Operation Commander) and General Jean Paul Thonier of France (Force Commander) between June 12 and September 1, 2003.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed William Lacy Swing of the U.S. as UN Special Representative for the DRC on May 22, 2003.  A transitional government headed by President Joseph Kabila was established on July 18, 2003.  The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against all Congolese armed groups in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Ituri provinces on July 28, 2003.  Major-General Samaila Iliya of Nigeria was appointed as MONUC force commander beginning on January 1, 2004.  The UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against all Congolese armed groups in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Ituri provinces on March 12, 2004.  Government troops suppressed an attempted coup on June 11, 2004.  Alpha Oumar Konare, chairperson of the African Union (AU) Commission, condemned the attempted coup on June 11, 2004.  On December 9, 2004, the Council of the EU established the EU Police Mission in Kinshasa (EUPOL-Kinshasa) to monitor, supervise, train, and reorganize civilian police personnel in Kinshasa.  EUPOL-Kinshasa, which consisted of 58 civilian police and staff from 13 countries headed by Commissioner Adilio Custodio of Portugal, was officially launched on April 12, 2005.  On April 18, 2005, the UN Security Council condemned the illicit flow of weapons into the DRC and imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against Congolese arms groups in all provinces within the DRC.  The National Assembly approved a draft constitution on May 14, 2005.  On June 8, 2005, the European Union Mission to Provide Advice and Assistance for Security Sector Reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo (EUSEC – DRC) was established to support security sector (military) reform in the DRC.  The mission consists of some 50 military and civilian personnel.  The EU imposed economic sanctions (financial restrictions) against certain individuals in the DRC on June 13, 2005.  On July 29, 2005, the UN Security Council condemned the illicit flow of weapons into the DRC.  The draft constitution was approved by some 84 percent of the voters in a referendum held on December 18-19, 2005.  The EU sent 10 election experts, 28 long-term observers, and 40 short-term observers headed by Philippe Morillon of France to monitor the referendum beginning on November 17, 2005.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent 15 observers to monitor the referendum beginning on December 12, 2005.  The new constitution went into effect on February 18, 2006.  On April 25, 2006, the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of a EU peacekeeping mission in the DRC.  On April 27, 2006, the Council of the EU established the European Union Force in the Democratic Republic of Congo (EUFOR-DRC) to support MONUC by providing security for the upcoming legislative elections.  EUFOR-DRC, which consisted of some 2,400 peacekeeping troops from 19 EU countries and one non-EU country (Turkey) commanded by Lt. General Karlheinz Viereck of Germany (Operation Commander) and Major-General Christian Damay of France (Force Commander), was deployed on June 12, 2006.  Legislative elections were held on July 30, 2006, and the People’s Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (Parti du Peuple pour la Reconstruction et le Democratie-PPRD) won 111 out of 500 seats in the National Assembly.  The Movement for the Liberation of Congo (Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo-MLC) won 64 seats, and the Unified Lumumbist Party (Parti Lumumbiste Unifie-PLU) won 34 seats in the National Assembly.  The African Union (AU) sent 78 observers to monitor the elections.  The All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) sent 23 observers from eight countries to monitor the first round of the presidential election and the legislative elections beginning on July 26, 2006.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)  sent observers to monitor the first round of the presidential election and the legislative elections.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 58 observers headed by former Prime Minister Joe Clark of Canada to monitor the first round of the presidential election and the legislative elections from April 24 to August 1, 2006.  The Southern African Development Community-Parliamentary Forum (SADC-PF) sent 115 observers headed by Jones Chingola of Malawi to monitor the first round of the presidential election and legislative elections from July 12 to August 3, 2006.  South Africa sent 128 observers to monitor the first round of the presidential election and legislative elections from July 19 to July 31, 2006.  EISA sent 30 observers headed by Yusuf Aboobaker of Mauritius to monitor the first round of the presidential election and legislative elections from July 10 to August 2, 2006.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze) against seven individuals, including Laurent Nkunda and Ignace Murwanashyaka, in the DRC on October 26, 2006.  Joseph Kabila was elected president with 58 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential election held on October 29, 2006.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 45 observers headed by former Prime Minister Joe Clark of Canada to monitor the second round of the presidential election from October 23 to October 30, 2006.  The SADC-PF sent 52 observers to monitor the second round of the presidential election.  The EU sent observers headed by Philippe Morillon of France to monitor the second round of the presidential election.  South Africa sent 108 observers headed by Mluleki George to monitor the second round of the presidential election from October 13 to November 10, 2006.  EISA sent 50 observers headed by Yusuf Aboobaker of Mauritius to monitor the second round of the presidential election from October 11 to November 20, 2006.  EUFOR-DRC was disbanded on November 30, 2006.  Some 100,000 individuals were killed in political violence between December 2002 and December 2006.

Conflict Phase (December 27, 2006-March 23, 2009):  Government troops clashed with insurgents led by General Laurent Nkunda in the North Kivu Province in eastern DRC on December 27, 2006, resulting in the deaths of some 18 insurgents.  President Kabila appointed Antoine Gizenga, leader of the Unified Lumumbist Party (Parti Lumumbiste Unifie – PLU), as prime minister on December 30, 2006.  General Laurent Nkunda established the National Congress for the Defense of the People (Congres National pour la Defense du Peuple – CNDP) in opposition to the government on December 30, 2006.  EUPOL-Kinshasa was disbanded on June 30, 2007, and the EU Police Mission for the DRC (EUPOL-DRC) was established on July 1, 2007.  The EUPOL-DRC, which consisted of 53 civilian police personnel and staff from ten countries commanded by Adilio Custodio of Portugal, was responsible for assisting and training the civilian police in the DRC.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Alan Doss of the United Kingdom as UN Special Representative in the DRC on October 24, 2007.  The government and CNDP rebels held peace talks on January 6-22, 2008, and the parties signed a peace agreement in Goma on January 23, 2008, but the agreement was not implemented.  Government police and members of Bundu Dia Kongo (People of Congo) clashed in western DRC in March 2008, resulting in the deaths of some 68 individuals.  On  March 13, 2008, the UN Security Council demanded that armed groups and militias in eastern DRC immediately lay down their arms.  Government troops and CNDP rebels clashed in North Kivu Province on August 27-28, 2008.  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga submitted his resignation to President Kabila on September 25, 2008.  Government troops and Popular Front for Justice in Congo (FPJC) rebels clashed near Bunia, the capital of Ituri Province, on October 10, 2008.  Adolphe Muzito was appointed as prime minister on October 10, 2008.  CNDP rebels launched a military offensive in eastern North Kivu Province on October 26, 2008.  UN Envoy Olusegun Obasanjo mediated negotiations between representatives of the government and CNDP in Nairobi, Kenya beginning on December 9, 2008.  On December 22, 2008, the UN Security Council condemned the illicit traffic of weapons in the DRC.  On January 22, 2009, General Nkunda was captured by the Rwandan military after he had crossed into Rwandan territory, and General Bosco Ntaganda took command of the CNDP.  The government and CNDP signed a UN-mediated peace agreement on March 23, 2009.  Several thousand individuals were killed during the conflict, and some two million individuals were displaced.

Post-Conflict Phase (March 24, 2009-April 3, 2012):  Democratic Front for the Liberation of Rwanda (Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda – FDLR) rebels attacked the village of Ekingi in South Kivu Province in May 2009, resulting in the deaths of 60 civilians and 30 government soldiers.  Armed insurgents from the Enyele tribe attacked the town of Mbandaka in Equateur Province on April 4, 2010, resulting in the deaths of ten government soldiers, three government policemen, 21 insurgents, two civilians and three MONUC personnel.  Government troops and UN peacekeepers regained control of Mbandaka airport on April 5, 2010.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Roger Meece of the U.S. as UN Special Representative in the DRC on June 9, 2010.  MONUC was disbanded on June 30, 2010, and the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO) was established on July 1, 2010.  MONUC fatalities included 100 peacekeeping troops, six civilian police personnel, ten military observers, and 12 international civilian personnel.  MONUSCO was authorized to include 19,815 peacekeeping soldiers and 760 military observers from 49 countries commanded by Lt. General Prakash Wadhwa of India (August 2010-March 2013) and Lt. General Carlos Alberto Dos Santos Cruz of Brazil (April 2013-present), as well as some 1,400 civilian police personnel from 26 countries.  Three UN Peacekeeping soldiers from India were killed in a rebel attack on a MONUSCO base in North Kivu Province on August 18, 2010.  Six armed men were killed during an attack on the residence of President Kabila in Kinshasa on February 27, 2011.  Five individuals, including three civilians were killed in clashes involving government policemen in the city of Lubumbashi on June 29, 2011.  One individual was killed in political violence in Kinshasa on September 6, 2011.  On October 31, 2011, Koen Vervaeke of Belgium was appointed as the EU’s Senior Coordinator (special envoy) for the Great Lakes region.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Kinshasa on November 26, 2011.  Four individuals were killed in election-related violence in Lubumbashi on November 28, 2011.  Presidential and legislative elections were held on November 28-30, 2011.  President Kabila was re-elected with 49 percent of the vote, and the coalition including the People’s Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (Parti du Peuple pour la Reconstruction et le Démocratie – PPRD) won 260 out of 500 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union for Democracy and Social Progress (Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social – UDPS) won 41 seats in the National Assembly.  Four individuals were killed in election-related violence in Lubumbashi on November 28, 2011.  The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, 46 long-term observers, and 92 short-term observers from 30 countries headed by Mariya Nedelcheva of Bulgaria to monitor the elections from October 19 2011 to January 13, 2012.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 198 observers to monitor the election from November 11 to December 1, 2011.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent 25 observers headed by Ambassador Bethuel Kiplagat of Kenya to monitor the elections from November 24 to December 1, 2011.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 20 long-term observers and 40 short-term observers headed by former President Rupiah Banda of Zambia to monitor the elections from August 8, 2011 to December 1, 2011. The African Union (AU) sent five observers to monitor the elections.  The Economic Community of the Central African States (ECCAS) sent observers to monitor the elections.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent 15 observers to monitor the elections from November 24 to December 1, 2011.  Human Rights Watch (HRW) reported that 24 individuals had been killed by government police since the elections.  President Kabila was inaugurated for a second term on December 20, 2011.  Étienne Tshisekedi, the leader of the UDPS and runner-up in the presidential election, disputed the results of the presidential election and declared himself as the president.  Prime Minister Adolphe Muzito resigned on March 6, 2012, and Louis Alphonse Koyagialo was appointed as Acting Prime Minister.  On March 14, 2012, the International Criminal Court (ICC), located in The Hague, Netherlands, found Thomas Lubanga, former head of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UCP), guilty of war crimes (recruiting and using child soldiers) committed between 2002 and 2003.  On March 20, 2012, the UN Joint Human Rights Office reported that at least 33 civilians were killed by government security forces in Kinshasa after the November 2011 elections.

Conflict Phase (April 4, 2012-December 12, 2013):  Ethnic Tutsi soldiers led by General Bosco “Terminator” Ntaganda mutinied against the government in North Kivu Province on April 4, 2012, and established the Congolese Revolutionary Army (March 23 Movement-M23).  President Kabila appointed Augustin Matata Ponyo as prime minister on April 18, 2012.   M23 rebels captured the towns of Mushake and Karuba on April 29-30, 2012.  MONUSCO reported that nearly 100 civilians were massacred by two Congolese militia in several villages in North Kivu Province between May 9 and May 25, 2012.  M23 rebels captured the town of Bunagana on July 6, 2012, and captured the town of Ritshuru on July 8, 2012.  Government military troops and UN troops attacked M23 rebels north of Goma on July 12, 2012.  On July 13, 2012, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued arrest warrants for two rebel leaders, Major-General Sylvestre Mudacumura (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda – FDLR) and General Bosco Ntaganda, for war crimes and crimes against humanity.  Uganda, representing the 11-member International Conference of the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), began mediation of negotiations between the government and M23 rebels on August 8, 2012.  The UN Security Council condemned the M23 rebel group on October 19, 2012.  The African Union (AU) appointed Boubacar Gaoussou Diarra of Mali as Special Representative for the Great Lakes region, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on November 1, 2012.  On November 14, 2012, the U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against Sultani Makenga, a leader of the M23 rebel group.  Government troops and UN troops attacked M23 rebels south of Kibumba on November 15, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 64 rebels.  On November 20, 2012, M23 rebels took control of Goma, the capital of North Kivu Province.  On November 21, 2012, the UN Security Council approved a resolution condemning the capture of Goma by the M23 rebel group.  On November 22, 2012, the M23 rebel group rejected an appeal by the leaders of the DRC, Uganda, and Rwanda to withdraw from Goma.  On November 24, 2012, the heads of state of the DRC, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania appealed for a ceasefire.  On November 28, 2012, the M23 rebel group agreed to withdraw from Goma, and rebels were withdrawn from Goma by December 1, 2012.  On November 28, 2012, the UN Security Council condemned the M23 rebel group and demanded that M23 rebels “cease immediately all forms of violence and other destabilizing activities.”  Government troops re-occupied Goma on December 2-3, 2012.  The UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (frozen assets and travel ban) against the leaders of the M23 rebel movement on December 31, 2012.  M23 rebels declared a unilateral ceasefire on January 8, 2013.  On February 24, 2013, representatives of eleven African countries signed the UN-brokered Peace, Security and Cooperation (PSC) Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Great Lakes region.  Government troops seized the towns of Rutshuru and Kiwanja from M23 rebels on March 1-2, 2013.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Mary Robinson of Ireland as UN Special Envoy to the Great Lakes region on March 18, 2013.  General Bosco Ntaganda, one of the leaders of the M23 rebel group, surrendered to U.S. government officials in Kigali, Rwanda on March 18, 2013, and General Ntaganda was transferred to the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague, Netherlands on March 22, 2013.  On March 28, 2013, the UN Security Council authorized the establishment of the 3,000-strong UN Force Intervention Bridge (FIB) as part of MONUSCO.  The FIB consisted of more than 3,000 soldiers from Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania commanded by General James Aloizi Mwakibolwa of Tanzania.  One UN peacekeeping soldier was killed in an ambush in eastern South Kivu province on May 7, 2013.  Government troops clashed with M23 rebels near Goma on May 20-21, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and 15 rebels. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Martin Kobler of Germany as UN Special Representative and Head of MONUSCO on June 10, 2013.  Russ Feingold was appointed as U.S. Special Envoy to the Great Lakes region and Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 18, 2013.  On July 25, 2013, the UN Security Council  demanded that “the members of all armed groups immediately and permanently disband and lay down their arms” in the DRC.  The UN Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) launched a military offensive against M23 rebels near Goma on August 23, 2013.  One UN soldier was killed during fighting with M23 rebels near Goma on August 28, 2013. On August 29, 2013, the UN Security Council “condemned in the strongest terms” the attacks by M23 rebels against civilians and MONUSCO peacekeeping personnel. Government troops recaptured the towns of Kibumba,  Kiwanja, and Rutshuru in North Kivu province from M23 rebels on October 26-27, 2013.  One UN soldier was killed during fighting with M23 rebels in the town of Kiwanja on October 27, 2013.  Government troops recaptured the town of Rumangabo from M23 rebels on October 28, 2013.  Government troops recaptured the town of Bunagana from M23 rebels on October 30, 2013.  On November 4, 2013, the envoys of the UN, EU, AU, and the United States to the Great Lakes region “urged the M23 to end its rebellion” and asked the DRC government to “refrain from any military action at this stage.”  On November 5, 2013, the M23 rebel group announced that it was ending its insurgency against the government.  On November 7, 2013, the commander of the M23 rebel group, Sultani Makenga, formally surrendered to the Ugandan government.  On November 12, 2013, the DRC government refused to signed a Uganda-mediated peace agreement in Kampala due to opposition to the title of the agreement.  On November 14, 2013, the UN Security Council called for the immediate disarmament and demobilization of M23 rebels with the assistance of MONUSCO.  Representatives of the government and M23 rebel group signed two separate “declarations” in Nairobi, Kenya on December 12, 2013. Several hundred individuals were killed, and some 800,000 individuals have been displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 13, 2013-present):  Government soldiers and UN intervention forces drove Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) rebels from the city of Beni in northeastern DRC on January 17, 2014.  On February 5, 2014, the DRC parliament approved an amnesty law, excluding amnesty for crimes such as genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.  On July 17, 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Said Djinnit of Algeria as UN Special Envoy to the Great Lakes region.  EUPOL-DRC was disbanded on September 30, 2014.  ADF rebels attacked several villages near Beni in northeastern DRC between October 5-17, 2014, resulting in the deaths of more than 60 civilians and one government soldier. At least 50 individuals were killed during attacks in the villages of Vemba and Tepiomba on November 20, 2014.  At least 38 civilians were killed in attacks in the villages of Ahili and Manzanzaba on December 6, 2014.  According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), at least 184 individuals were killed during attacks in the town of Beni and nearby villages in northeastern DRC from October 5th to December 6th.  The UN peacekeeping mission, MONUSCO, consisted of 19,463 troops, 490 military observers, 1,083 civilian police personnel, and 920 international civilian staff personnel on December 31, 2014.  MONUSCO fatalities included 54 military personnel (51 troops and three military observers), seven civilian police personnel, and 13 international civilian staff personnel.  Government troops and UN troops launched a military offensive against Burundi ethnic-Hutu National Forces of Liberation (Forces Nationales de Libération – FNL) rebels in an eastern region of the DRC beginning on January 5, 2015.  Government troops launched a military offensive against Rwanda ethnic-Hutu Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) rebels in an eastern region of the DRC beginning on January 31, 2015.  By March 13, 2015, government troops captured the towns of Kirumba Kagondo, Kahumiro, Kabwendo, and Mugogo from the FDLR, resulting in the deaths of more than 175 rebels.  The National Assembly voted to revised the country’s electoral laws on January 17, 2015.  Government security forces clashed with protesters in Kinshasa and other cities on January 19-25, 2015, resulting in the deaths of more than 25 individuals.  The African Union (AU) appointed Arvin Boolell of Mauritius as Special Representative for the Great Lakes region, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on April 16, 2015.  Two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Tanzania were killed in an ambush by suspected ADF rebels near the village of Kikiki in North Kivu Province on May 5, 2015.  Thomas Perriello replaced Russ Feingold as U.S. Special Envoy to the Great Lakes region, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on July 6, 2015.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Maman Sambo Sidikou of Niger as UN Special Representative and head of MONUSCO on October 8, 2015.  ADF rebels attacked a MONUSCO base in North Kivu on November 29, 2015, resulting in the deaths of one UN peacekeeping soldier, four DRC government soldiers, and several civilians.  On November 30, 2015, the UN Security Council condemned the ADF attack against the MONUSCO base.  On April 6, 2016, former Prime Minister Edem Kodjo of Togo was appointed as African Union (AU) special envoy to facilitate the National Dialogue in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  ADF rebels attacked the village of Mutsonge on May 3, 2016, resulting in the deaths of 17 civilians.  ADF rebels attacked a village near Oicha in northeastern DRC on July 5, 2016, resulting in the deaths of nine civilians.  Members of the ethnic-Luba Kamwina Nsapu militia attacked government security forces in the south-central Kasai region on August 8, 2016.  Jean-Pierre Mpandi, leader of the Kamwina Nsapu militia, was killed during clashes with government security forces in Tshimbulu in the Kasai region on August 12, 2016.  Eight other militiamen and eleven government policemen were also killed in the clash.  ADF rebels were suspected of attacking the Rwangoma district in the city of Beni in northeastern DRC on August 14, 2016, resulting in the deaths of at least 64 individuals.  After an announcement that upcoming presidential elections would be delayed, thousands of Congolese protested against the government of President Joseph Kabila in Kinshasa and other cities on September 19-20, 2016.  At least 32 individuals, including at least three government police officers, were killed during the protests.  On September 19, 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the violent clashes between protestors and security forces in the DRC.  On September 22, 2016, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid bin Ra’ad, condemned the DRC government for suppressing the anti-government protests.  On September 26, 2016, the DRC government announced that a total of 27 militiamen, 16 government policemen, and six civilians had been killed in the Kasai region since fighting began in August 2016.  The DRC government and opposition political parties signed an agreement brokered by African Union (AU) Special Envoy Edem Kodjo in Kinshasa on October 18, 2016.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against two high-ranking DRC government officials, Evariste Boshab and Kalev Mutondo, on December 12, 2016.  The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against Commander of the Republican Guard, Ilunga Kampete, and six others government officials on December 12, 2016.  Government security forces clashed with protesters in Kinshasa and other cities on December 14-23, 2016, resulting in the deaths of 40 individuals.  Thomas Perriello resigned as Special Envoy to the Great Lakes region on December 15, 2016.  The U.S. Department of State condemned the DRC government on December 20, 2016.  The Roman Catholic Church in the DRC mediated an agreement between the government and the main opposition bloc on December 23, 2016.  At least 101 individuals were killed by government security forces in the Kasai region on February 9-13, 2017.  On February 20, 2017, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development condemned the violence in the Kasai region.  On March 28, 2017, government security forces clashed with protesters following collapse of Roman Catholic Church mediated-negotiations between the government and opposition over a power-sharing agreement. The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (travel bans and assets freezes) against nine government officials and military officers on May 29, 2017.  The UN peacekeeping mission, MONUSCO, consisted of 16,807 troops, 474 military observers, 1,090 civilian police personnel, and 795 international civilian staff personnel on June 30, 2017.  MONUSCO fatalities included 68 military personnel (65 troops and three military observers), eight civilian police personnel, and 16 international civilian staff personnel as of June 30, 2017.  Two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Tanzania were killed during an attack by Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) rebels against a UN peacekeeping base in North Kivu Province on October 9, 2017.  That same day, the Egyptian government expressed its “condemnation of the terror attack” on the UN peacekeeping base in North Kivu Province.  On December 8, 2017, ADF rebels attacked and killed 15 UN peacekeeping soldiers from Tanzania and five DRC government soldiers in North Kivu province.  Some 72 ADF rebels were killed in the attack.  UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres condemned the killing of UN peacekeeping soldiers.  UN Secretary-General António Guterres appointed Leila Zerrougui of Algeria as UN Special Representative and head of MONUSCO on December 28, 2017.  Government security forces clashed with protesters on December 31, 2017.  The U.S. government and the UN Security Council condemned the DRC government.  Government security forces clashed with protesters in Kinshasa and other cities on January 21, 2018, resulting in the deaths of at least six individuals.  On January 23, 2018, the U.S. Department of State condemned the DRC government for the violence against the peaceful protests.  Some 30 individuals were killed in ethnic clashes between Hema herders and Lendu farmers in Ituri Province on February 4-5, 2018.  Nearly 80 individuals were killed in ethnic clashes in the village of Maze and other nearby villages in Ituri Province on March 2-3, 2018.  Some 200,000 individuals were reported to have fled the area in recent months.  As of June 2018, more than 3,000 individuals have been killed and some 1.6 million individuals have been internally displaced as a result of the conflict in the Kasai region.  Some 35,000 individuals have fled as refugees to Angola.

[Sources: Africa Diary, January 6-12, 1962, April 28-May 4, 1962, July 7-13, 1962, August 11-17, 1962, September 8-14, 1962, January 26-February 1, 1963, March 9-15, 1963, July 27-August 2, 1963, May 9-15, 1964, November 5-11, 1977, June 18-24, 1979, April 23-29, 1985; Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), April 1-30, 1977, February 1-28, 1978, March 1-31, 1978, May 1-31, 1978, June 1-30, 1978, June 1-30, 1979, July 1-31, 1979, August 1-31, 1979; African Union (AU) press release, June 11, 2004, August 4, 2006; Agence France-Presse (AFP), April 19, 2002, March 23, 2009, January 31, 2015; Al Jazeera, August 26, 2017, January 3, 2018, January 23, 2018, February 22, 2018, March 4, 2018; Amate, 1986, 431-458; Arnold et al., 1991, 386-387; Associated Press (AP), August 3, 1998, August 21, 1998, November 6, 1998, August 6, 1999, March 3, 2000, June 8, 2000, April 27, 2001, October 27, 2002, November 2, 2002, December 17, 2002, March 1, 2003, June 11, 2004, May 4, 2016; Banks and Muller, 1998, 206-216; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 97-98, 175-176, 183-184, 222-224, 229-230; Brecher and Wilkenfeld, 1997, 72-76, 434-435, 489-490; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), August 31, 1998, May 14, 2005, January 3, 2006, January 12, 2006, February 19, 2006, December 28, 2006, December 30, 2006, August 31, 2007, September 6, 2007, September 25, 2007, January 11, 2008, January 23, 2008, March 26, 2008, August 28, 2008, October 11, 2008, October 26, 2008, October 29, 2008, November 17, 2008, January 17, 2009, May 13, 2009, April 4, 2010, April 5, 2010, April 21, 2010, May 19, 2010, February 27, 2011, June 29, 2011, September 6, 2011, November 27, 2011, November 28, 2011, November 30, 2011, December 2, 2011, December 9, 2011, December 11, 2011, December 15, 2011, December 20, 2011, December 21, 2011, February 2, 2012, March 14, 2012, March 20, 2012, April 19, 2012, April 30, 2012, May 7, 2012, May 11, 2012, July 8, 2012, July 12, 2012, July 13, 2012, July 25, 2012, October 19, 2012, November 14, 2012, November 20, 2012, November 21, 2012, November 22, 2012, November 24, 2012, November 26, 2012, November 27, 2012, November 28, 2012, November 30, 2012, December 1, 2012, December 3, 2012, December 14, 2012, December 31, 2012, January 1, 2013, January 8, 2013, February 24, 2013, February 28, 2013, March 2, 2013, March 18, 2013, March 22, 2013, March 23, 2013, March 28, 2013, April 25, 2013, May 8, 2013, May 20, 2013, May 21, 2013, July 15, 2013, August 23, 2013, August 28, 2013, October 28, 2013, October 30, 2013, November 5, 2013, November 7, 2013, December 12, 2013, December 20, 2016, March 28, 2017, April 24, 2017, June 20, 2017, December 8, 2017, May 11, 2018, June 26, 2018;  Business Day (Johannesburg), August 8, 2002; Butterworth, 1976, 281-283, 409-410; The Carter Center (TCC) press release, May 2, 2006, June 2, 2006, October 23, 2006, October 27, 2006; Chicago Tribune (CT), February 4, 1993; Clodfelter, 1992, 1013-1014, 1017, 1026-1027; Degenhardt, 1988, 421-423; Donelan and Grieve, 1973, 203-209; Dupoy and Dupoy, 1977, 1321-1323; European Parliament (EP) press release, June 14, 2002; European Union (EU) press release, October 19, 2011, December 13, 2011, March 29, 2012; EU statement, July 16, 1999; Facts on File, November 25-December 1, 1965, June 16-22, 1966, August 11-17, 1966, October 20-26, 1966, August 3-9, 1967, August 31-September 6, 1967, March 26, 1977, April 9, 1977, April 16, 1977, May 21, 1977, June 25, 1977, March 31, 1978, June 2, 1978, August 25, 1978, February 23, 1979, January 25, 2001, February 8, 2001; Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), June 5, 1978, June 6, 1978, June 9, 1978, June 14, 1978, January 23, 1992; Human Rights Watch (HRW) press release, August 27, 1998; International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) press release, January 15, 1998; Jessup, 1998, 825-830; Keesing’s Record of World Events, September 17-24, 1960; April 6-13, 1963, June 15-22, 1963, August 8-15, 1964, December 18-25, 1965, June 17, 1977, February 10, 1978, August 11, 1978, June 1983, May 1985, March 1988, September 1991, October 1991, November 1991, August 1992, October 1996, November 1996, March 1997, April 1997, May 1997, August 1998, July 1999; Langer, 1972, 1269-1272; Los Angeles Times (LAT), September 27, 1991, January 30, 1993, January 31, 1993, February 1, 1993, January 1, 2013, April 12, 2018; New Vision (Kampala), April 27, 2002; New York Times (NYT), January 30, 1993, April 10, 1997, July 23, 2002, October 1, 2002, November 21, 2002, June 11, 2004, July 31, 2006, June 18, 2013, January 5, 2015, January 3, 2017, July 23, 2017, July 28, 2017, January 23, 2018; Nye, 1971, 156-157; Panafrican News Agency (PANA), February 25, 2000, January 26, 2001; Reuters, August 27, 1998, August 29, 1998, August 31, 1998, September 29, 1998, October 4, 1998, October 18, 1998, February 17, 1999, February 26, 1999, April 9, 1999, July 11, 1999, July 12, 1999, July 16, 1999, August 31, 1999, September 4, 1999, November 16, 1999, February 2, 2000, February 24, 2000, January 16, 2001, January 17, 2001, January 24, 2001, January 25, 2001, June 24, 2001, September 3, 2001, September 13, 2002, September 17, 2002, November 21, 2002, November 23, 2002, December 5, 2002, December 17, 2002, January 7, 2003, March 20, 2003, April 8, 2003, June 4, 2003, June 10, 2003, June 12, 2003, June 13, 2003, July 28, 2003, December 18, 2005, December 21, 2005, October 18, 2014, July 5, 2016, December 12, 2016, December 21, 2016, December 23, 2016, February 14, 2017, April 16, 2017, December 25, 2017, January 19, 2018, February 5, 2018, March 19, 2018, June 26, 2018; Rikhye et al., 1974, 71-96; Rikhye, 1984, 81-89; Schatzberg, 1989, 315-340; Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) statement, August 3, 2006; Sunday Times (Johannesburg), August 4, 2002; The East African (Nairobi), September 23, 2002; The Herald (Harare), February 20, 2002, August 29, 2002; The Monitor (Kampala), May 25, 2002; Tillema, 1991, 73-76, 80-81, 83-84; United Nations (UN) press release, August 18, 2000; Voice of America (VOA), May 30, 2012, December 9, 2014, February 20, 2017, November 2, 2017, March 6, 2018, March 21, 2018; Wainhouse, 1973, 267-344; Washington Post (WP), June 4, 1978, June 11, 1978, October 30, 2006, June 18, 2013; Weisburd, 1997, 182-184, 202-203, 277-278; Weissman, 1979, 263-286; Woronoff, 1970, 361-386.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Kabwit, Ghislain C. 1979. “Zaire: The Roots of the Continuing Crisis,” The Journal of Modern African Studies,” vol. 17 (3), pp. 381-407.

Schatzberg, Michael G. 1989. “Military Intervention and the Myth of Collective Security: The Case of Zaire.” Journal of Modern African Studies 27 (no.2): 315-340.

Weissman, Stephen R. 1979. “CIA Covert Action in Zaire and Angola: Patterns and Consequences.” Political Science Quarterly 94 (Summer): 263-286.