58. Comoros (1975-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (December 31, 1975-May 11, 1978):  Comoros – including the islands of Grande Comore (Ngazidja), Moheli (Mwali), and Anjouan (Nzwani) – formally achieved its independence from France on December 31, 1975.  The Revolutionary Council of State headed by Ali Soilih was established to govern the country on January 2, 1976.  President Ali Soilih was endorsed in a referendum with 95 percent of the vote on October 28, 1977.

Crisis Phase (May 12, 1978-December 15, 1978):  President Ali Soilih was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Said Atthoumani on May 12-13, 1978, resulting in the deaths of five individuals. Abdellahi Mohamed formed a government as prime minister on May 17, 1978, and the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros was proclaimed on May 24, 1978.  Former President Soilih was killed by security personnel on May 29, 1978.  A new constitution was approved in referendum on October 1, 1978, and Ahmed Abdullah was elected president without opposition on October 22, 1978.  The French government agreed to provide military assistance (training and 23 military advisors) in support of the government of Comoros on November 10, 1978.  Legislative elections were held on December 8, 1978, and independents won 38 out of 38 seats in the National Assembly.  Salim Ben Ali was appointed as prime minister on December 22, 1978.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 16, 1978-November 26, 1989):  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on October 1, 1981.  President Abdullah dismissed Prime Minister Ali on January 25, 1982, and Ali Mroudjae was appointed as prime minister on February 8, 1982.  President Abdallah banned all existing political parties and established the Comorian Union for Progress (Union Comorienne pour le Progrès – UCP) in February 1982.  Legislative elections were held on March 7, 1982, and the UCP won 37 out of 38 seats in the National Assembly.  President Abdullah was re-elected with 99 percent of the vote on September 30, 1984.  The government suppressed a rebellion on March 8, 1985, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. On November 7, 1985, seventeen individuals were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for their involvement in the rebellion.  Legislative elections were held on March 22, 1987, and the UCP won 42 out of 42 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition political parties claimed election fraud.

Crisis Phase (November 27, 1989-January 24, 1996):  President Abdullah was assassinated by members of the presidential guard at his residence in Moroni on November 26, 1989.  President of the Supreme Court Haribon Chebani became interim president on November 27, 1989.  Interim President Haribon Chebani was overthrown in a military coup led by French mercenary Bob Denard and some 500 members of the presidential guard on November 27-28, 1989.  Said Mohamed Djohar was installed as head of a provisional government.  Some 27 government policemen were killed during the military coup.  The South African government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the provisional government of Comoros on December 4, 1989.  President Said Mohamed Djohar ordered the suppression of demonstrations on December 7, 1989.  The French government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the provisional government of Comoros on December 7, 1989.  Bob Denard surrendered to some 50 French paratroopers in Moroni on December 15, 1989.  The French government deployed some 200 military personnel to Comoros, and the French military personnel took control of the Comoros military and presidential guard.  Presidential elections were held on March 4 and March 11, 1990, and Said Mohamed Djohar was elected president with 55 percent of the vote in the second round.  The French government provided military assistance (training) to the government of Comoros beginning in April 1990.  The government suppressed a rebellion on August 18-19, 1990.  On August 3, 1991, the President of the Supreme Court, Ibrahim Ahmed Halidi, announced the dismissal of President Djohad.  President Djohad ordered the arrest of Ibrahim Ahmed Halidi and declared a state of emergency.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on June 7, 1992. The government suppressed a military rebellion led by Lt. Said Mohamed on September 26-27, 1992.  Troops loyal to President Said Mohamed Djohar clashed with rebel soldiers led by Lt. Said Mohammed “Lava” in Moroni on October 13-21, 1992, resulting in the deaths of some 25 individuals.  Legislative elections were held on November 22 and November 29, 1992, and the Union for Democracy and Decentralization (UDD) won seven out of 42 seats in the Federal Assembly.  The Comorian Union for Progress (Union Comorienne pour le Progrès – UCP) and National Union for Democracy in the Comoros (NUDC) boycotted the elections. Ibrahim Abderemane Halidi of the UDD was appointed as prime minister on January 1, 1993, and Prime Minister Abderemane Halidi formed a coalition government on January 6, 1993. Prime Minister Abderemane Halidi was dismissed by the Federal Assembly in a vote of no-confidence on May 19, 1993, and President Djohar dissolved the Federal Assembly on June 19, 1993. Ahmed Ben Cheikh Attoumane was appointed as interim prime minister on June 19, 1993.  Legislative elections were held on December 12-20, 1993, and a coalition of political parties, including UDD, won 22 out of 42 seats in the Federal Assembly.  The Comorian Union for Progress (Union Comorienne pour le Progrès – UCP) won eight seats in the Federal Assembly.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Mohamad Abdou Madi was appointed as prime minister on January 2, 1994. President Djohar dismissed Prime Minister Abdou Madi, and appointed Halifa Houmadi as prime minister on October 13, 1994. Prime Minister Houmadi resigned on April 29, 1995, and Mohamed Yachroutou formed a government as prime minister on April 30, 1995.  President Djohar was deposed in a rebellion led by Robert Denard on September 28, 1995, and the Transitional Military Committee (TMC) by Captain Ayouba Combo took control of the government on September 29, 1995.  The European Union (EU) condemned the rebellion on September 29, 1995.  Some 900 French troops intervened in support of the overthrown government on October 4, 1995.  Bob Denard, 33 mercenaries, and 300 Comoran soldiers surrendered to French troops on October 5, 1995.  Prime Minister Yachroutu established a government of national unity, and proclaimed himself interim president on October 31, 1995.  Four individuals were killed during the rebellion. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) mediated an agreement between ousted President Djohar and President Yachroutu in Antananarivo, Madagascar on January 23, 1996, and President Djohar was restored to power on January 24, 1996.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 25, 1996-August 2, 1997):  Presidential elections were held on March 6 and March 16, 1996.  Mohamed Taki Abdulkarim of the National Union for Democracy in the Comoros (NUDC) was elected president with 64 percent of the vote in the second round on March 16, 1996, and he was inaugurated as president on March 25, 1996.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential elections.  Tadjiddine Ben Said Massonde formed a government as prime minister on March 27, 1996. President Taki dissolved the parliament on April 11, 1996. The National Rally for Development (NRD) was established on October 6, 1996 as a result of the merger of the NUDC and several other political parties. A new constitution was approved with 85 percent of the vote in a referendum on October 20, 1996. Legislative elections were held on December 1-8, 1996, and the NRD won 36 out of 42 seats in the Federal Assembly.  The National Front for Justice (Front National pour la Justice – FNJ) won four seats in the National Assembly.  Prime Minister Massonde resigned on December 11, 1996, and Ahmed Abdou formed a government as prime minister on December 27, 1996.

Crisis Phase (August 3, 1997-February 17, 2001):  The islands of Anjouan and Moheli announced their secession from the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros on August 3, 1997, and Foundi Abdallah Ibrahim declared himself president of Anjouan island.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) appointed Ambassador Pierre Yerere of the Ivory Coast as Special Envoy to Comoros on August 6, 1997.  On September 9, 1997, President Mohamed Taki declared a state-of-emergency after some 50 government soldiers were killed during an invasion attempt of Anjouan island on September 3-5, 1997. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance to individual adversely affected by the conflict beginning in September 1997. President Taki dismissed Prime Minister Ahmed Abdou on September 9, 1997. France agreed to provide economic assistance to the government of Comoros on September 16, 1997, but refused a Comoros government request for military assistance. Mohammed Ahmad Al Khazandar, a mediator representing the League of Arab States (LAS), unsuccessfully attempted to mediate a resolution of the dispute beginning on September 24, 1997. Ninety-nine percent of Anjouans voted for independence in a referendum on October 26, 1997. The OAU imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the secessionist movement on November 1, 1997, and condemned the secessionist movement on November 7, 1997.  The OAU established the Observer Mission in Comoros (OMIC I) to monitor the situation and to act as a confidence-building mechanism in Comoros.  OMIC I, which consisted of 20 military observers from Egypt, Niger, Senegal, and Tunisia, was deployed beginning on November 25, 1997 (seven military observers intended for the island of Anjouan were never deployed).  President Taki Abdulkarim appointed Nourdine Bourhane as prime minister on December 7, 1997.  President Abdallah Ibrahim appointed Chamassi Said Omar as prime minister of the island of Anjouan on March 9, 1998.  An OAU foreign minister conciliation commission (Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, South Africa, Mauritius, Zimbabwe, and Burkina Faso) chaired by the representative from Tanzania mediated negotiations between representatives of the government and the islands of Anjouan & Moheli on March 18-20, 1998.  Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Moroni on May 13-14, 1998, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  President Mohammed Taki Abdoulkarim dismissed the government of Prime Minister Nourdine Bourhane on May 29, 1998.  President Mohammed Taki Abdoulkarim died on November 6, 1998, and Tadjiddine Ben Said Massonde was sworn in as interim president on November 7, 1998.  Rival groups clashed on the island of Anjouan on December 5-17, 1998, resulting in the deaths of some 60 individuals.  The OAU appealed for a ceasefire on December 6, 1998, and sent a six member military fact-finding mission headed by a representative from South Africa to Moroni, Comoros on December 6-11, 1998.  The OAU fact-finding mission issued a report to the OAU on December 17, 1998.  On March 11, 1999, Lila Ratsifanhdrimanana, foreign minister of Madagascar, agreed to facilitate upcoming OAU-mediated negotiations between representatives of the government and the island of Anjouan.  The OAU mediated reconciliation negotiations between representatives of the government and the islands of Anjouan & Moheli in Antananarivo, Madagascar on April 19-23, 1999.  Representatives from the Comoros government and the island of Moheli signed an agreement on April 25, 1999, which provided local autonomy to the three islands in the republic.  Representatives from Anjouan Island refused to sign the agreement.  President Tadjiddine Ben Said Massonde was deposed in a military coup on April 30, 1999.  A military junta headed by Colonel Azali Assoumani took control of the central government and suspended the constitution on April 30, 1999.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the military coup on April 30, 1999.  Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary-General of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), condemned the military coup on April 30, 1999.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the French government condemned the military coup on April 30, 1999.  The League of Arab States (LAS) offered to mediate negotiations on May 1, 1999.  The government of Mali condemned the military coup on May 1, 1999.  The South African government condemned the military coup on May 3, 1999.  The French government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the government in May 1999.  The European Union (EU) condemned the military coup on May 7, 1999, and imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government.  The OAU completed the withdrawal of OMIC I from Comoros on May 30, 1999.  The U.S. government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the government on June 10, 1999.  OAU Special Envoy Francisco Caetano Jose Madeira of Mozambique, who was appointed as Special Envoy to replaced Ambassador Yere on August 13, 1999, attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties on October 24-31, 1999.  Sixty percent of the voters on the island of Anjouan approved the secession from Comoros in a referendum on January 23, 2000.  The government of Mozambique condemned the referendum on January 25, 2000. The OAU condemned the referendum on January 24, 2000.  The OAU imposed economic sanctions (travel and financial boycott) against the island of Anjouan on February 1, 2000.  The government suppressed a military rebellion led by Captain Aberemane Abdallah on March 20-21, 2000.  The EU lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government of Comoros in 2000.  On February 21, 2001, representatives of the government and the island of Anjouan signed the General Agreement on National Reconciliation (“Fomboni Agreement”) mediated by the OAU (Special Envoy Francisco Madeira of Mozambique) and the OIF (Special Envoy Andre Salifou of Niger) in the city of Fombini, Moheli.  The agreement called for the establishment of the Comoros Union of Moheli, Anjouan, and Grande Comore.  The OAU Council of Ministers lifted economic sanctions against the island of Anjouan on February 17, 2001.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 18, 2001-August 8, 2001):

Crisis Phase (August 9, 2001-January 17, 2002):  A military junta headed by Major Mohammed Bacar deposed Lt. Colonel Abderemane Said Abeid as leader of the government on the island of Anjouan on August 9, 2001.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion on the island of Anjouan led by Ahmed Aboubacar Foundi on September 24-25, 2001.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion on the island of Anjouan on November 3, 2001, resulting in the death of one individual. On November 27, 2001, the OAU established the Observer Mission in Comoros (OMIC II) to monitor a disarmament program on the island of Anjouan.  OMIC II, which consisted of 14 military observers from Togo, South Africa (five military observers), Mozambique, and Mauritius commanded by Lt. Col. Charles Payne of South Africa, was deployed on the island of Anjouan beginning on December 1, 2001. Some 75 percent of voters approved a new constitution in a referendum on December 23, 2001, which provided for the establishment of the Comoros Union of Moheli, Anjouan, and Grande Comore.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the referendum.  Colonel Azali Assoumani relinquished control of the Comoros Union of Moheli, Anjouan, and Grand Comore to a transitional government headed by Hamada Madi Borelo on January 17, 2002.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 18, 2002-May 1, 2007):  OMIC II was disbanded on February 2, 2002.  The OAU established the Observer Mission in Comoros (OMIC III) to monitor the situation in Comoros during the presidential election process from March 15 to May 15, 2002.  OMIC III consisted of 25 military observers and nine communications technicians from South African (nine military observers and nine technicians), Togo (six military observers), Mozambique (five military observers), and Senegal (five military observers) commanded by Lt. Col. Robert Gibson of South Africa.  Colonel Assoumani was elected president of the Union of the Comoros without opposition in the second round of the presidential election held on April 14, 2002.  The Organization of African Union (OAU), Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), League of Arab States (LAS), and South Africa sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  Opposition candidates, Mahamoud Mrandadi and Said Ali Kemal, decided to boycott the second round of the presidential election. The Comoros Electoral Commission declared the results of the Union of the Comoros presidential election as invalid on April 22, 2002, but Azali Assoumani was declared the winner of the presidential election by a newly-appointed electoral commission on May 9, 2002.  Abdou Soule Elbak was elected president of the island of Grand Comore with 63 percent of the vote on May 19, 2002.  The African Union (AU), represented by President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, mediated negotiations among the representatives of the islands of Grande Comore, Moheli, and Anjouan in Moroni on December 18-20, 2003.  Representatives of the islands of the Union of the Comoros signed an AU-mediated power-sharing agreement, known as the Agreement on the Transitional Arrangements in the Comoros (“Beit Salam Agreement”), in Moroni on December 20, 2003.  Elections for the assemblies of the islands of the Union of the Comoros were held on March 14-21, 2004.  Legislative elections were held on April 18-25, 2004, and the Camp of the Autonomous Islands (CAI) won 12 out of 18 seats in the Assembly of the Union. The Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros (Convention pour le Renouveau des Comores – CRC) won six seats in the Assembly of the Union.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The African Union (AU) sent observers from South Africa, Kenya, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Tanzania to monitor the legislative elections. The League of Arab States (LAS) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The African Union (AU) approved the establishment of the Observer Mission in Comoros (OMIC IV) consisting of 39 military observers from South Africa (head of mission), Benin, Burkina Faso, Madagascar, Mozambique, Senegal, and Togo to ensure security for the upcoming  elections.  OMIC IV was deployed in the Comoros for two months beginning on March 9, 2004.  On October 11, 2005, the government of the Union of the Comoros requested the AU to monitor the upcoming presidential election.  On March 21, 2006, the AU established the AU Mission for Support to the Elections in the Comoros (AMISEC) to provide security for and monitor the presidential election.  AMISEC, which consisted of some 432 military and 30 civilian police personnel from South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo-Brazzaville, Egypt, Nigeria, Mozambique, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Rwanda commanded by Colonel George Sibanyoni of South Africa and 60 election observers, were deployed beginning on March 30, 2006.  Ahmed Abdallah Sambi, a moderate Islamist from the island of Anjouan, was elected president with 58 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential election on May 14, 2006, and he was sworn in as president on May 26, 2006.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential elections.  AMISEC was disbanded on June 9, 2006.

Crisis Phase (May 2, 2007-March 25, 2008):  Government troops clashed with local police on the island of Anjouan on May 2, 2007, resulting in the death of two government soldiers.  On May 3, 2007, the African Union (AU) condemned the violence on the island of Anjouan.  On May 9, 2007, the Council of the African Union (AU) decided to establish the Electoral and Security Mission to the Comoros (MAES).  The Special Envoy of the African Union (AU) mediated the signing of a agreement between the Comoros government and the Anjouan government on May 11, 2007.  The AU mission (MAES I), which was deployed in Comoros on May 13, 2007, was responsible for assisting the government in creating a secure and stable environment for the holding of elections.  The AU mission (MAES I) consisted of 262 military personnel and civilian police from South Africa (42 civilian police), Tanzania (200 soldiers), Senegal (five soldiers and five civilian police), and Sudan (five soldiers and five civilian police).  Presidential elections for the autonomous islands of Grande Comore and Moheli were held on June 10 and June 24, 2007.  Mohamed Abdouloihab was elected president of Grande Comore with 57 percent of the vote in the second round held on June 24, 2007, and he was sworn in as president on June 30, 2007.  Mohamed Ali Said was elected president of Moheli with 58 percent of the vote in the second round held on June 24, 2007, and he was sworn in as president on July 1, 2007.  President Mohammed Bacar was re-elected on the island of Anjouan with 89 percent of the vote in the first round on June 10, 2007, and he was sworn in as president on June 14, 2007.  On June 18, 2007, the Constitutional Court of the Comoros declared the presidential election on the island of Anjouan as invalid and ordered a new election.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential elections.  On October 10, 2007, the African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and asset freeze) against President Bacar of Anjouan and his supporters, and extended the mandate of the AU mission (MAES I) until February 28, 2008.  The African Union (AU) deployed some 1,350 military personnel from Tanzania, Senegal, and Sudan to help Comoran government troops take control of the island of Anjouan from Colonel Mohammed Bacar on March 25, 2008.  The AU peace enforcement operation was known as “Operation Democracy in the Comoros”.  Colonel Bacar fled to the island of Mayotte, and France transported him to the island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 26, 2008-present):  Vice President Ikililou Dhoinine was appointed as head of the island of Anjouan on March 26, 2008.  On April 30, 2008, the AU mission (MAES II) was given a six-month mandate to assist in the collection of arms and ammunition on the island of Anjouan and to provide the necessary security for elections on the island of Anjouan.  The AU mission (MAES II) consisted of 356 military and civilian personnel from Tanzania and Sudan.  Presidential elections were held on the island of Anjouan on June 15 and June 29, 2008.  Moussa Toybou was elected president of the island of Anjouan with 52 percent of the vote in the second round held on June 29, 2008.  The International Election Observation Mission (IEOM) – including observers from the African Union (AU), Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and League of Arab States (LAS) – monitored the presidential elections.  The AU mission (MAES II) was disbanded on October 30, 2008.  A constitutional referendum was held on May 17, 2009, and constitutional amendments extending the term of the current president, Ahmed Abdallah Sambi, by two years and allowing Islam to become the state religion were approved by 94 percent of the voters.  Legislative elections were held on December 6 and December 20, 2009, and President Sambi’s Baobab coalition won 16 out of 33 seats in the Assembly of the Union of the Comoros.  Opposition political parties led by Said Larifou won five seats in the Assembly.  The African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  On February 7, 2010, Union of the Comoros security forces arrested and detained Said Larifou, the leader of the coalition of political parties opposed to the government of President Sambi.  On February 9, 2010, Said Larifou began a hunger strike to protest his detention.  The government of the island of Moheli refused to recognize President Ahmed Abdallah Sambi after his four-year term ended on May 26, 2010.  On June 16, 2010, AU Special Envoy Francisco Madeira mediated an agreement signed by President Ahmed Abdallah Sambi and the governors of Grande Comore and Anjouan, which allowed President Sambi to remain as “interim president” until upcoming presidential elections.  Lt. Colonel Combo Ayouba, an officer in the military of the Union of the Comoros, was assassinated by unknown assailants in Moroni on June 13, 2010.  On August 31, 2010, General Salimou Amiri, the Army Chief-of-Staff, was charged for his alleged involvement in the assassination of Lt. Colonel Combo Ayouba.  The first round of elections for the presidency of the Union of the Comoros was held on November 7, 2010, and no candidate won a majority of the votes.  Vice President Ikililou Dhoinine was elected president of the Union of the Comoros with 61 percent of the vote in the second round of the elections held on December 26, 2010.  The International Election Observation Mission (IEOM) – including observers from the African Union (AU), Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and League of Arab States (LAS) – monitored the presidential elections.  On January 13, 2011, the Constitutional Court confirmed Vice President Ikililou Dhoinine as the winner of the 2010 president election.  On November 2, 2012, General Salimou Amiri, former Army Chief-of-Staff, was acquitted of involvement in the assassination of Lt. Colonel Combo Ayouba in June 2010.  On April 22, 2013, the government announced that it had arrested ten individuals for plotting against the government.

[Sources: Africa Diary, July 22-28, 1984; Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), May 1-31, 1978, April 15, 1985, April 15, 1987; African Union (AU) communique, May 9, 2007; African Union (AU) report, January 30, 2004, April 29, 2004, March 21, 2006, August 13, 2007; African Union (AU) press statement, November 13, 2010; Agence France Presse (AFP), April 14, 2006, May 14, 2006, May 3, 2008, May 25, 2010, November 2, 2012; Allock et al., 1992, 235-243; Associated Press (AP), September 19, 1997, February 18, 2001, April 16, 2002; Banks and Muller, 1998, 201-206; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 271-272; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), May 30, 1999, October 31, 1999, March 10, 2002, April 14, 2002, May 9, 2002, May 19, 2002, June 14, 2002, November 27, 2003, April 17, 2006, May 14, 2006, May 16, 2006, May 10, 2007, February 21, 2008, March 11, 2008, March 18, 2008, March 24, 2008, March 25, 2008, March 26, 2008, March 28, 2008, December 29, 2010; Degenhardt, 1988, 64-65; European Union (EU) press release, September 29, 1995, May 7, 1999; Facts on File, August 23, 2001, October 11, 2001, December 31, 2001; Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), May 15, 1978; International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) press release, September 10, 1997; Jessup, 1998, 134; Keesing’s Record of World Events, July 21, 1978, May 1986, November 1989, November 1992, January 1993, May 1993, June 1993, December 1993, January 1994, October 1994, September 1995, October 1995, March 1996, August 1997, September 1997, October 1997, November 1997, December 1997, February 1998, March 1998, May 1998, November 1998, December 1998; New York Times (NYT), December 7, 1989, August 4, 1991, October 1, 1995, October 5, 1995, March 17, 1997, May 1, 1999, September 25, 2001, November 4, 2001, February 25, 2006, March 26, 2008; Panafrican News Agency (PANA), November 7, 1997, March 11, 1999, April 16, 1999, April 25, 1999, April 30, 1999, January 25, 2000, March 21, 2000, March 22, 2000, February 1, 2001, February 27, 2001, March 24, 2006; Reuters, September 16, 1997, September 20, 1997, September 24, 1997, March 20, 1998, March 21, 1998, December 7, 1998, April 9, 1999, April 30, 1999, May 1, 1999, May 30, 1999, June 10, 1999, January 24, 2000, February 1, 2000, March 22, 2000, November 4, 2001, December 19, 2001, February 24, 2008, March 7, 2008, March 24, 2008, March 25, 2008, March 26, 2008, December 29, 2010, April 22, 2013, April 27, 2013.]

 

Bibliography

Massey, Simon and Bruce Baker. Comoros: External Involvement in a Small Island State. Programme Paper AFP 2009/1. London: Chatham House, July 2009.

Svensson, Emma. The African Union’s Operations in the Comoros: MAES and Operation Democracy. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden, September 2008.