36. Central African Republic (1960-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (August 13, 1960-December 30, 1965): Central African Republic formally achieved independence from France on August 13, 1960, and David Dacko of the Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa (Mouvement pour l’Evolution Sociale de l’Afrique Noire – MESAN) was elected president by the National Assembly on August 14, 1960.  President Dacko was re-elected without opposition on January 5, 1964.  Legislative elections were held on March 15, 1964, and the MESAN won 60 out ot 60 seats in the National Assembly.

Crisis Phase (December 31, 1965-September 27, 1979): President David Dacko was deposed in a military coup led by Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa on December 31, 1965, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. The Revolutionary Council headed by Colonel Bokassa abolished the constitution and dissolved the parliament on January 4, 1966. Colonel Bokassa proclaimed himself president-for-life and commander-in-chief of the military.  French troops were deployed to Bangui on November 10, 1967.  French troops suppressed a rebellion against the government on November 16, 1967. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Lt. Colonel Alexandre Banza on April 10-11, 1969. Lt. Colonel Banza was executed on April 12, 1969.  The French government deployed troops in support of the government on April 16, 1969. President Jean-Bédel Bokassa dissolved the government, and established the 31-member Council of the Central African Revolution (CCAR) on September 5, 1976.  President Bokassa proclaimed himself emperor of the Central African Empire on December 4, 1976, and dissolved the CCAR on December 7, 1976.  President Jean-Bédel Bokassa was formally installed as Emperor in Bangui on December 4, 1977.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on December 5, 1977.  Government troops and students clashed in Bangui on January 20-23, 1979, resulting in the deaths of some 150 individuals.  The government of Congo-Kinshasa (Zaire) deployed 200 troops in support of the government on January 22, 1979.  Henri Maidou formed a government as prime minister on March 13, 1979. Government troops arrested and killed some 100 children on April 18-20, 1979.  Amnesty International (AI) issued a report on the killings on May 14, 1979.  The Franco-African Conference of Heads of State or Government established a five-member commission of inquiry (Ivory Coast, Liberia, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo) headed by Youssou Ndiaye of Senegal to investigate the reported killing of children on May 22, 1979.  The French government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the government on May 23, 1979.  The Franco-African Conference commission of inquiry issued a report on July 17, 1979, which suggested that Emperor Bokassa I had “almost certainly” participated in the killing of some 100 children.  The French government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic sanctions) against the government on August 17, 1979. Emperor Bokassa I was overthrown in a rebellion led by former president David Dacko on September 20-21, 1979. Some 900 French troops intervened in support of the rebels (Operation Barracuda) on September 20-21, 1979.  David Dacko took control of the government on September 27, 1979. Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 28, 1979-August 31, 1981): On January 24, 1981, six individuals were executed for crimes committed during the regime of Emperor Bokassa I. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on February 1, 1981. David Dacko of the Central African Democratic Union (Union Démocratique Centrafricaine – UDC) was elected president with 51 percent of the vote on March 15, 1981, and he was inaugurated as president on April 3, 1981. Four individuals were killed in political violence on March 20, 1981.

Crisis Phase (September 1, 1981-October 22, 1993): President David Dacko was deposed in a military coup led by General Andre Kolingba on September 1, 1981. The Military Committee for National Recovery (Comite Militaire pour le Redressement National – CMRN) headed by General Kolingba took control of the government on September 2, 1981. The CMRN suspended the constitution and limited political party activity on September 2, 1981. Libya provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the CMRN on September 3, 1981. The CMRN suppressed a rebellion on March 3, 1982. General Kolingba dissolved the CMRN on September 21, 1985. A new constitution, which was approved in a referendum on November 21, 1986, established the Central African Democratic Assembly (Rassemblement Democratique Centrafricain – RDC) as the country only legal political party.  Legislative elections were held on July 31, 1987, and the RDC won 52 out of 52 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition political groups boycotted the legislative elections. General Kolingba appointed Edouard Franck as prime minister on March 15, 1991. On June 7, 1991, General Kolingba established a national commission to revise the constitution. The constitution was amended to allow for a multiparty political system on August 30, 1992.  Legislative elections were held on October 25, 1992, but the Supreme Court cancelled the elections on October 28, 1992. General Kolingba appointed General Timothee Malendoma as prime minister on December 4, 1992. General Kolingba dismissed Prime Minister Malendoma on February 26, 1993, and appointed Enoch Derant Lakoue of the Social Democratic Party (Parti Social-Democrate – PSD) as prime minister. Legislative elections were held on August 22, 1993, and MLPC won 34 out of 85 contested seats in the National Assembly.  The RDC won 13 seats in the National Assembly.  Ange-Félix Patassé of the Central African People’s Liberation Movement (Mouvement pour la Liberation du Peuple Centrafricaine – MLPC) was elected president with 53 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential election on September 19, 1993, and he was inaugurated as president on October 22, 1993.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 23, 1993-April 17, 1996): President Ange-Félix Patassé appointed Jean-Luc Mandaba of the Central African People’s Liberation Movement (Mouvement pour la Liberation du People Centrafricaine – MLPC) as prime minister on October 25, 1993. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on December 28, 1994, and the constitution went into effect on January 7, 1995. Prime Minister Mandaba resigned on April 11, 1995, and Gabriel Koyambounou was appointed as prime minister on April 12, 1995.

Crisis Phase (April 18, 1996-November 14, 1996): Some 400 rebel soldiers mutinied against the government of President Ange-Félix Patassé in Bangui beginning on April 18, 1996.  The French government expressed support for the government of President Ange-Félix Patassé on April 19, 1996.  Some 1,650 French troops were deployed in support of the government on April 18, 1996. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance beginning in April 1996. Government troops and French troops suppressed the mutiny on May 28, 1996, resulting in the deaths of 11 government soldiers and 32 civilians.  President Ange-Félix Patassé dismissed Prime Minister Koyambounou on June 5, 1996, and appointed Jean-Paul Ngoupande as prime minister on June 6, 1996. Prime Minister Ngoupande formed a “government of national unity” on June 19, 1996. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (November 15, 1996-July 2, 1997): Rebel soldiers led by Captain Anicet Saulet mutinied against the government of President Ange-Félix Patassé in Kasai beginning on November 15, 1996. Some 1,500 French troops were deployed in support of the government on November 16, 1996. Two French soldiers were killed by rebels on January 4, 1997. French troops and rebels clashed at the Kasai military camp on January 5, 1997, resulting in the deaths of ten rebels. Burkina Faso, Chad, Gabon, and Mali formed an inter-African conciliation commission to mediate in the dispute. The inter-African conciliation commission negotiated the signing of the Bangui Agreements by representatives of the government and rebels in Bangui on January 25, 1997.  The heads of state of Burkina Faso, Chad, Gabon, and Mali agreed to establish a peacekeeping mission – the Inter-African Mission to Monitor the Implementation of the Bangui Agreements (Mission Internationale du Suivi des Accords de Bangui – MISAB) – to monitor the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and to participate in the disarmament of rebels.  At maximum strength, MISAB consisted of some 800 peacekeeping troops from Burkina Faso (114), Chad (147), Gabon (149), Mali (113), Senegal (153), and Togo (120) commanded by General Edouard N’Kili of Gabon.  MISAB, which was assisted by a 88-person French logistical support command unit, was deployed in Bangui on February 8, 1997.  President Ange-Félix Patassé appointed Michel Gbezera-Bria as prime minister on January 30, 1997, and Prime Minister Gbezera-Bria formed a “government of national unity” on February 18, 1997.  MISAB troops and rebels clashed in Bangui on March 21-22, 1997, resulting in the deaths of 20 individuals.  Some 100 individuals were killed during clashes between MISAB troops and rebels on June 20-24, 1997.  General Edouard Nkili of Gabon, commander of the MISAB, and Captain Saulet signed a four-day ceasefire agreement on June 28, 1997.  The parties signed a 10-day ceasefire agreement on July 2, 1997.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed, and some 70,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 3, 1997-May 27, 2001): The United Nations (UN) Security Council authorized MISAB under Chapter VII of the UN Charter on August 6, 1997. Oluyemi Adeniji of Nigeria was appointed as special representative of the UN secretary-general in the Central African Republic on April 3, 1998.  On March 27, 1998, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Mission on the Central African Republic (Mission des Nations Unies dans la Republique Centrafricaine – MINURCA) to assist in maintaining law and order in Bangui, to supervise the disarmament process, and to provide security for UN personnel in the country.  At maximum strength, MINURCA consisted of 1,350 military personnel and 24 civilian police personnel from fourteen countries commanded by Major-General Barthelemy Ratanga of Gabon.  MISAB was disbanded on April 15, 1998.  Six MISAB personnel were killed during the mission.  MINURCA was launched on April 15, 1998.  Legislative elections were held on November 22 and December 13, 1998, and the Union of Forces for Peace (UFAP) alliance won 55 out of 109 seats in the National Assembly.  The Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC) won 47 seats in the National Assembly.  The European Union (EU) sent eleven observers to monitor the legislative elections. The UN Secretariat sent observers to monitor the legislative elections. The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers headed by Alioune Sene of Senegal to monitor the legislative elections.  Supporters of President Ange-Félix Patassé and opposition presidential candidate Andre Kolinba clashed on September 11, 1999, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  President Ange-Félix Patassé was re-elected with 52 percent of the vote on September 19, 1999. Andre Kolinba was runner-up with 19 percent of the vote.  President Ange-Félix Patassé was inaugurated for another six-year term on October 22, 1999.  MINURCA was disbanded on February 15, 2000.  Two MINURCA personnel were killed during the mission.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan established the United Nations Peace-Building Office in the Central African Republic (BONUCA) to promote peace and national reconciliation beginning on February 15, 2000.  BONUCA consisted of 30 personnel, including five civilian police, headed by General Lamine Cisse of Senegal.  President Ange-Félix Patassé dismissed Prime Minister Anicet Georges Dologuele on April 1, 2001, and appointed Martin Ziguele of the MLPC as prime minister.

Conflict Phase (May 28, 2001-June 7, 2001): Government troops clashed with rebel soldiers in Bangui beginning on May 28, 2001. UN Secretary-General Kofi Anan condemned the rebellion on May 29, 2001, and the OIF Parliamentary Assembly condemned the rebellion on May 30, 2001. Libya deployed 100 troops in support of the government on May 30, 2001. The Vatican appealed for a ceasefire on June 6, 2001. Government troops suppressed the rebellion on June 7, 2001. Some 100 individuals were killed, and some 50,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (June 8, 2001-October 24, 2002): The World Food Program (WFP) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) established a joint mission to provide humanitarian assistance to refugees from the Central African Republic beginning on July 16, 2001.  On July 16, 2001, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Lamine Cisse of Senegal as UN special representative for the Central African Republic.  The European Union (EU) provided humanitarian assistance to displaced individuals beginning on July 18, 2001. President Ange-Félix Patassé dismissed Army Chief of Staff General François Bozizé for plotting against the government on October 26, 2001. Government troops and troops loyal to General François Bozizé clashed in Bangui on November 3-7, 2001. General François Bozizé fled to Chad.  UN Representative of the Secretary-General Lamine Cisse and Mahamat Habib Doutoum of the OAU mediated negotiations between the parties beginning on November 7, 2001. Government troops and rebel soldiers clashed on December 3, 2001.  On December 3, 2001, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (Communaute des Etats Sahelo-Sahariens CEN-SAD) decided to establish a peacekeeping mission to protect President Ange-Félix Patassé.  The CEN-SAD peacekeeping mission, which consisted of some 200 peacekeeping troops from Djibouti (50 personnel), Libya (100 personnel), and Sudan (50 personnel), was deployed on February 1, 2002.  The WFP provided humanitarian assistance to some 6,000 internally-displaced persons (IDPs) in northern CAR between May 24 and August 16, 2002. On August 27, 2002, the National Criminal Court (NCC) sentenced former President Andre Kolingba and 21 other individuals to death in absentia for their involvement in the May 2001 rebellion.

Conflict Phase (October 25, 2002-March 15, 2003): Government troops clashed with troops loyal to General François Bozizé beginning on October 25, 2002. Amara Essy, interim chairman of the Commission of the African Union (AU), condemned the rebellion on October 26, 2002.  The French government condemned the rebellion, and appealed to the rebels for a ceasefire on October 27, 2002.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed to rebel soldiers for a ceasefire on October 29, 2002. Government troops, supported by Libyan troops and military aircraft, launched a military offensive against rebels on October 30, 2002. The CEN-SAD condemned the rebellion on October 30, 2002.  The U.S. government condemned the rebellion, and appealed to the rebels for a ceasefire on November 1, 2002.  The WFP and CARITAS provided humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning on November 6, 2002.  Rebels captured the town of Bossangoa on November 24, 2002.  Government troops recaptured Bossembele on November 27, 2002.  On October 2, 2002, the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l’Afrique Centrale – CEMAC) decided to established a peacekeeping mission (Force Multinationale en Centrafrique-FOMUC) to protect President Ange-Félix Patassé.  The CEMAC peacekeeping mission (FOMUC) consisted at maximum strength of about 500 peacekeeping troops from Congo-Brazzaville, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon commanded initially by General Mohamed Rachid Ratanga of Gabon (December 2002 to February 2003).  The French government deployed some 450 troops (Operation Boali) to secure the M’poko airport, train government troops, and support the CEMAC/FOMUC peacekeeping force beginning in October 2002.  CEMAC/FOMUC was launched on December 4, 2002.  CEN-SAD peacekeeping troops and Libyan troops were withdrawn on December 28, 2002.  Rebel troops commanded by General François Bozizé overthrew the government of President Ange-Félix Patassé on March 15, 2003, resulting in the deaths of some 15 individuals.  Three CEMAC/FOMUC peacekeeping soldiers were killed on March 15, 2003.  General François Bozizé suspended the constitution and dissolved the parliament.  Several hundred individuals were killed, and some 205,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (March 16, 2003-November 22, 2004):  The African Union (AU) condemned the overthrow of the government of President Ange-Félix Patassé, and imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) on March 16, 2003.  The European Union (EU) condemned the overthrow of President Ange-Félix Patassé, and imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government of General François Bozizé on March 16, 2003.  The French government condemned the overthrow of President Ange-Félix Patassé on  March 16, 2003.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the overthrow of President Ange-Félix Patassé on March 17, 2003.  The U.S. government condemned the overthrow of President Ange-Félix Patassé on  March 19, 2003, and imposed economic sanctions (restrictions on foreign assistance) against the government of Central African Republic.  General François Bozizé requested assistance from Chad to restore law and order in Bangui, and some 300 Chadian troops arrived in Bangui beginning on March 19, 2003.  An additional 120 Chadian troops later joined the CEMAC/FOMUC peacekeeping mission.  The World Food Programme (WFP) provided humanitarian assistance to displaced individuals beginning in March 2003.  CEMAC heads-of-state (Cameroon, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon) condemned the overthrow of President Ange-Félix Patassé on March 21, 2003.  General François Bozizé appointed Abel Goumba as prime minister on March 23, 2003.  Equatorial Guinea withdrew its 31 soldiers from the CEMAC/FOMUC peacekeeping mission on March 26, 2003.  CEMAC heads-of-state (Cameroon, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon) provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) and economic assistance ($9 million) to the government of General François Bozizé on June 4, 2003.  Prime Minister Abel Goumba was dismissed on December 11, 2003, and Célestin Leroy Gaombalet was appointed as prime minister on December 12, 2003.

Conflict Phase (November 23, 2004-June 21, 2008):  Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (Union des Forces Democratiques pour le Rassemblement – UFDR) rebels commanded by Michel Detodia attacked the northeastern town of Birao on November 23, 2004, resulting in the deaths of some 20 individuals.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum with 91 percent of the vote on December 5, 2004.  Legislative elections were held on March 13 and May 8, 2005, and the National Convergence “Kwa Na Kwa” (NC-KNK) won 42 out of 105 seats in the National Assembly.  The Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (Mouvement pour la Liberation du Peuple Centrafricain-MLPC) won 11 seats in the National Assembly.  François Bozizé was elected president with 65 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential election on May 8, 2005, and he was inaugurated as president on June 11, 2005.  Prime Minister Célestin Leroy Gaombalet announced his resignation on June 11, 2005, and Elie Dote was appointed as prime minister on June 13, 2005.  The African Union (AU) lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government on June 27, 2005.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on July 1, 2005.  The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (restrictions on foreign assistance) against the government of Central African Republic.  CEMAC/FOMUC peacekeeping troops were deployed to maintain law and order in the town of Bozoum on August 19, 2005, and were deployed in the town of Bria on October 29, 2005.  Rebels attacked a military base on June 26, 2006, resulting in the deaths of eleven government soldiers, two CEMAC/FOMUC peacekeeping soldiers, and 20 rebels.  Some 150 UFDR rebels captured the town of Birao on October 30, 2006, and captured the town of Ouadda-Djalle on November 10, 2006.  Some 20 government soldiers and three UFDR rebels were killed during the attack on the town of Ouadda-Djalle on November 10, 2006.  President François Bozizé requested military assistance from the French government on November 4, 2006, and some 300 French troops intervened in support of the government beginning on November 14, 2006.  Government and French troops recaptured the town of Birao on November 27, 2006, and recaptured the town of Ouadda-Djalle on December 10, 2006.  Some 150,000 individuals were displaced between March 2003 and December 2006.  Representatives of the government and the Democratic Front for the People of the Central African Republic (Front Démocratique du People Centrafricaine – FDPC) headed by Abdoulaye Miskine signed a Libyan-mediated ceasefire agreement in Sirte, Libya on February 2, 2007. The governments of South Africa and the Central African Republic signed a memorandum of understanding on February 11, 2007, providing for South military assistance (military training) to the CAR government.  Some 20 to 30 South African military personnel commanded by Colonel George Sibanyon were based in South Africa for the military training mission (Operation Vimbezela).  Representatives of the government and the UFDR signed a CEMAC-mediated ceasefire agreement on April 13, 2007.  François Lonseny Fall of Guinea was appointed as UN Special Representative for the Central African Republic on September 12, 2007.  On September 25, 2007, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) to provide protection for civilians, refugees, displaced persons, NGO personnel, and UN personnel in northeastern CAR, as well as to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance in the region.  MINURCAT consisted of 300 peacekeeping troops commanded by Major-General Elhadji Mouhamedou Kandji of Senegal.  On September 25, 2007, the UN Security Council also authorized the EU to establish a peacekeeping force for Chad and the Central African Republic.  On October 15, 2007, the Council of the European Union approved the deployment of a EU military force in Chad and the Central African Republic.  Prime Minister Elie Dote announced his resignation on January 18, 2008, and Faustin-Archange Touadéra of the National Convergence “Kwa Na Kwa” (NC-KNK) was appointed as prime minister on January 22, 2008.  On January 28, 2008, the EU military force (EUFOR-Chad/CAR) was deployed in eastern Chad (200 military personnel) and northeastern Central African Republic (3,500 military personnel) to provide protection for civilians, refugees, displaced persons, and UN personnel.  The EU military force (EUFOR-Chad/CAR), which was commanded by Brig. General Jean-Philippe Ganascia of France (Force Commander), consisted of some 3,700 military personnel from 19 countries, including 2,000 soldiers from France, 400 from Ireland, 400 from Poland, 200 from Sweden, 210 from Austria, 120 from Romania, 100 from Italy, 100 from Belgium, and 100 from Spain.  Government troops and rebels clashed in the northwestern part of the country on March 5, 2008, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers and rebels.  Representatives of the government and the People’s Army for the Restoration of Democracy (L’Armée Populaire pour la Restauration de la République et la Démocratie – APRD) signed a CEMAC-mediated ceasefire agreement in Libreville, Gabon on May 9, 2008.  Representatives of the government and three rebel groups (FDPC, UFDR, and APRD) signed a CEMAC-mediated comprehensive peace agreement in Libreville, Gabon on June 21, 2008.  Several hundred individuals were killed, and more than 200,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (June 22, 2008-June 11, 2009):  On July 12, 2008, the CEMAC/FOMUC peacekeeping missions was replaced by a new peacekeeping mission established by the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) –  the  Mission for the Consolidation of Peace in the Central African Republic – MICOPAX. The mandate of ECCAS (MICOPAX) included assisting with maintaining law and order, assisting with the disarmament/demobilization process, protecting humanitarian assistance, and providing security for UN staff and civilians.  ECCAS (MICOPAX) consisted of 500 peacekeeping troops, 30 military observers, and 150 civilian police personnel from Burundi, Congo-Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, and Chad commanded by General Felix Akanga of Gabon.  Rebels ambushed and killed 13 government soldiers near Kabo on November 11, 2008.  Former President Pierre Buyoya of Burundi began mediation of political dialogue in CAR on December 8, 2008.  On January 14, 2009, the UN Security Council demanded a cessation of violence by armed groups in CAR.  President François Bozizé dissolved the government on January 18, 2009, but re-appointed Faustin-Archange Touadéra as prime minister on January 19, 2009.  EUFOR Chad/CAR was disbanded and the mission taken over by the UN’s MINURCAT on March 15, 2009.  Sahle-Work Zewde of Ethiopia was appointed as UN Special Representative for the Central African Republic on June 3, 2009.  Some 27 individuals were killed in ethnic clashes in Barao on June 6, 2009.  

Conflict Phase (June 12, 2009-June 12, 2011):  Government troops and Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (Convention des Patriotes pour la Justice et la Paix – CPJP) rebels led by former prime minister Charles Massi clashed in the northwestern part of the country on June 12, 2009, resulting in the deaths of 15 rebels and three government soldiers.  Ten individuals were killed in ethnic violence in the northwestern part of the country on June 21, 2009.  CPJP rebels attacked and captured the town of Ndele in north-central CAR on November 26, 2009, resulting in the deaths of three rebels and 12 government soldiers.  Government troops re-captured the town of Ndele on November 27, 2009.  Two government soldiers were killed in clashes with CPJP rebels near the Chadian border on December 7, 2009.  On January 1, 2010, the UN established the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic (BINUCA), including 65 international civilian personnel headed by Special Representative of the Secretary-General Margaret Vogt of Nigeria.  Charles Massi, leader of the CPJP rebel group, was killed by the government on January 8, 2010.  Ten CPJP rebels were killed by government troops near the town of Ndele on April 2, 2010.  One government soldier was killed in a rebel attack on April 16, 2010. Government troops and CPJP rebels clashed in the town of Birao on July 19, 2010.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent four long-term and short-term observers to monitor the voter registration process from October 23 to November 20, 2010.  Rebels attacked and captured the town of Birao in northern CAR on November 24, 2010, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers.  Government troops re-captured the town of Birao on December 1, 2010, after the deaths of 65 rebels and 15 government soldiers during the week of fighting.  MINURCAT (Central African Republic) was disbanded on December 31, 2010.  Presidential elections were held on January 23, 2011, and François Bozizé was re-elected with 66 percent of the vote.  Legislative elections were held on January 23 and March 27, 2011, and the National Convergence “Kwa Na Kwa” (NC-KNK) won 61 out of 105 seats in the National Assembly.  Independents won 26 seats in the National Assembly.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent 28 observers headed by Pierre Boyoya of Burundi to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent 26 long-term and short-term observers headed by Samuel Azu’u Fonkam of Cameroon to monitor the elections on January 8 to February 10, 2011. François Bozizé was inaugurated as president on March 15, 2011.  Eleven individuals, mostly Chadians, were killed in religious violence in Bangui on May 31-June 1, 2011.  The government and CPJP rebels signed a ceasefire agreement on June 12, 2011.

Post-Conflict Phase (June 13, 2011-December 9, 2012):  Some 50 individuals were killed in clashed between rival armed groups (CPJP and UFDR) in the town of Bria beginning on September 11, 2011.  The rival armed groups signed a ceasefire agreement on October 8, 2011.  The government signed a peace agreement with the Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (Convention des Patriotes pour la Justice et la Paix – CPJP) on August 25, 2012.  A dissident faction of the CPJP (known as the “Fundamental CPJP”) led by Hassan al-Habib attacked the towns of Sibut, Damara, and Dekoa on September 15, 2012, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers.  Government troops killed Hassan al-Habib in Daya on September 19, 2012.  Militants killed two civilians and one government policeman near the village of Libi on November 13, 2012.

Conflict Phase (December 10, 2012-present):  The Séléka rebel coalition (CPJP and UFDR) led by Michel Am-Nondokro Djotodia launched military hostilities against the government of President François Bozizé on December 10, 2012.  Séléka rebels captured the town of Ndélé and two other towns on December 10, 2012, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers.  Séléka rebels captured the town on Bamingui on December 15, 2012.  Séléka rebels captured the town on Bria on December 18, 2012, resulting in the deaths of more than 15 government soldiers.  The government of Chad deployed some 2,000 soldiers in support of the government beginning on December 18, 2012.  The UN Security Council condemned the Séléka coalition on December 19, 2012.  Séléka rebels captured the town of Kabo on December 19, 2012, Bambari on December 23, 2012, and Kaga-Bandoro on December 25, 2012.  The government of Brazil appealed for a cessation of military hostilities on December 25, 2012.  The UN Security Council condemned the Séléka coalition on December 27, 2012.  Séléka rebels captured the town of Sibut on December 29, 2012.  On January 6, 2013, the South African government sent deployed an additional 200 troops in support of the CAR government .  Séléka rebels temporarily halted their military offensive and agreed to peace negotiations on January 2, 2013.  The UN Security Council appealed for a cessation of military hostilities and “political dialogue” on January 4, 2013.  The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) mediated negotiations between representatives of the CAR government and the Séléka coalition in Libreville, Gabon beginning on January 9, 2013, and the representatives signed a ceasefire agreement on January 11, 2013.  President François Bozizé dismissed the government of Prime Minister Faustin Archange Touadera on January 12, 2013, and appointed Nicolas Tiangaye of the Republican Convention for Social Progress (Convention Républicaine pour le Progrès Social – CRPS) as prime minister on January 17, 2013.  Séléka rebels resumed military hostilities against the government on March 20, 2013, and overthrew the government of President François Bozizé on March 24, 2013.  South African troops clashed with Séléka rebels in Bangui on March 24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 14 South African soldiers (including one soldier who later died in South Africa) and several hundred rebels.  The African Union (AU) Commission condemned the overthrow of President François Bozizé on March 24, 2013.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the “unconstitutional seizure of power” in the Central African Republic on March 24, 2013.  Séléka rebel leader Michel Djotodia suspended the constitution and proclaimed himself as president of the Central African Republic on March 25, 2013.   The African Union (AU) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) and economic sanctions (asset freeze and travel ban) against Michel Djotodia and other Séléka rebel leaders on March 25, 2013.  Most of the 200 South African troops deployed to CAR were withdrawn on March 29-31, 2013.  President Michel Djotodia appointed an interim government headed by Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye on March 31, 2013.  Michel Djotodia was formally elected president by the 105-member transitional council on April 13, 2013.  Rival factions clashed in Bangui on April 13-14, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 17 individuals.  On April 18, 2013, the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) recognized Michel Djotodia as the “head of state of the transition” in the Central African Republic.  Armed supporters of former President François Bozizé captured the town of Bouca on September 9, 2013.  At least 30 individuals were killed during clashes between armed groups near the village of Garga on October 7-8, 2013.  On November 22, 2013, retired Major-General Jean Marie Michel Mokoko of the Republic of Congo was appointed as Special Representative in the Central African Republic.  Colonel Patrice Ostangue Bengone of Gabon was appointed as Head of the police component of the AFISM-CAR.  On December 5, 2013, the UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against armed groups in the Central African Republic.  The UN Security Council authorized the deployment of the African Union (AU) African-Led International Support Mission in the Central African Republic (AFISM-CAR), also known as Mission Internationale de Soutien à la Centrafrique sous Conduite Africaine (MISCA), on December 5, 2013.  The mandate of AFISM-CAR included protecting civilians, restoration of security and public order, and protecting humanitarian assistance.  AFISM-CAR, which consisted of 5,600 troops from Burundi, Rwanda, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon commanded by Brig. General Martin Tumenta Chomu of Cameroon, was deployed in the Central African Republic beginning on December 19, 2013.  The UN Security Council also authorized the deployment of French military forces in support of the AFISM-CAR on December 5, 2013.  The French government launched a peacekeeping mission (Operation Sangaris) consisting of some 2,000 military personnel to re-established law and order in Bangui and to disarm armed groups beginning on December 6, 2013.  Two French peacekeeping soldiers were killed during clashes with armed groups in Bangui on December 9-10, 2013.  The Christian militia, known as Anti-Balaka, killed 27 Muslims in the village of Bohong on December 12, 2013.  The formal transfer of authority from ECCAS (MICOPAX) to the AFISM-CAR (MISCA) took place on December 19, 2013.  French peacekeeping troops killed three Séléka rebels on December 22, 2013.  On December 23, 2013, the European Union (EU) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo and prohibition against technical assistance, including armed mercenary personnel) against armed groups in the Central African Republic.  Dozens of individuals, including six Chadian soldiers serving with the AU peacekeeping mission, were killed in Bangui on December 25-26, 2013.  Four individuals were killed during clashes between armed groups north of Bangui on December 30, 2013.  More than 1,000 individuals were killed during clashes between armed groups in December 2013.  During a regional summit meeting of the ECCAS held in Chad, Interim President Michel Djotodia and Prime Minister Nicolas Tiengaye resigned on January 10, 2014.  Catherine Samba-Panza, mayor of Bangui, was elected Interim President by the National Transitional Council on January 20, 2014, and she was sworn in as Interim President on January 23, 2014.  At least 16 individuals were killed during clashes between armed groups on January 23, 2014.  President Catherine Samba-Panza appointed André Nzapayeke as prime minister on January 25, 2014.  On January 28, 2014, the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of a European Union (EU) military force in the Central African Republic.  On January 28, 2014, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against individuals involved in the conflict.  Some 43 individuals were killed during clashes between armed groups in Bangui on January 28-31, 2014.  At least 75 individuals were killed during clashes between Muslim and Christian armed groups in the town of Boda from January 28 to February 3, 2014.  On February 7, 2014, the International Criminal Court (ICC) opened a preliminary investigation into possible war crimes committed in the Central African Republic.  On February 10, 2014, the Council of the European Union (EU) approved the establishment of the European Union Force in the Central African Republic (EUFOR-CAR) in order to “provide temporary support in achieving a safe and secure environment in the Bangui area”, including providing security at the Bangui airport.  The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) appointed Cheikh Tidiane Gadio of Senegal as OIC Special Envoy for the Central African Republic on March 8, 2014.  Eleven individuals were killed in a grenade attack, possibly by former members of the Séléka militia, during a funeral in Bangui on March 27, 2014.  EUFOR-CAR, which consisted of 700 military personnel from Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, and Spain led by Force Commander Brigadier General Thierry Lion of France, was deployed in the Central African Republic on April 1, 2014.  Chadian soldiers killed some 30 civilians in Bangui on March 29, 2014.  At least 30 individuals, mostly civilians, were killed during clashes between armed groups in the town of Dekoa on April 8-9, 2014.  On April 10, 2014, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) to protect civilians, facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance, protect UN personnel, and support the disarmament/demobilization process.  MINUSCA was authorized to include some 10,000 military personnel and 1,800 civilian police personnel.  Chad withdrew its entire contingent of some 850 soldiers in the AU peacekeeping mission from the Central African Republic on April 13, 2014.  U.S. Ambassador W. Stuart Symington was appointed as U.S. Special Representative for the Central African Republic on April 22, 2014.  Séléka rebels attacked a medical clinic in the town of Nanga Boguila on April 26, 2014.  Some 22 individuals, including three Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) workers, were killed in the attack on the clinic.  EU peacekeeping troops took control of the main airport in Bangui on May 1, 2014.  Gunmen killed some 15 individuals in the town of Markounda on May 1, 2014.  At least 28 individuals, including 22 civilians and six Séléka rebels, were killed during clashes between Christian and Muslim militias in the town of Mala on May 1-4, 2014.  French peacekeepers clashed with gunmen near the town of Boguila on May 5, 2014, resulting in the deaths of several gunmen.  At least 31 individuals were killed during clashes between Christian and Muslim militias near the town of Dekoa on May 12-15, 2014.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against former presidents François Bozizé and Michel Djotodia, along with three other individuals, on May 13, 2014.  French peacekeeping troops clashed with Muslims in the town of Bambari on May 22, 2014.  AU peacekeepers clashed with protesters in Bangui on May 29-30, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least two individuals.  Christian and Muslim militias clashed in the town of Bambari on June 23-24, 2014, resulting in the deaths of more than 50 individuals.  Ugandan troops clashed with Séléka rebels near the villages of Zako and Kono on June 29-30, 2014, resulting in the deaths of 16 Séléka rebels and one Ugandan soldier.  Séléka rebels attacked a Christian church compound in Bambari on July 7, 2014, resulting in the deaths of several individuals.  Babacar Gaye of Senegal was appointed as the UN Special Representatives for the Central African Republic on July 16, 2014.  Representatives of the Séléka rebels and the anti-Balaka militia signed a ceasefire agreement in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo on July 24, 2014.  On July 25, 2014, Major-General Joseph Zoundeiko, head of the military wing of the Séléka rebels, rejected the ceasefire agreement.  Major General Martin Chomu Tumenta of Cameroon was appointed as the Commander of MINUSCA on July 30, 2014.  The UN peacekeeping mission, MINUSCA, took over the AU peacekeeping mission, AFISM-CAR or MISCA, in the Central African Republic on September 5, 2014.  French peacekeeping troops killed at least five gunmen in Bambari on October 2, 2014.  One UN peacekeeping soldier was killed in an ambush in Bangui on October 9, 2014.  More than ten Christian civilians were killed by Muslims in Bambari on December 5, 2014.  Brigadier General Jean-Marc Bacquet of France was appointed as Force Commonader of EUFOR-Central African Republic on December 15, 2014.  Christian militia members clashed with Muslim rebels in Mbres on December 16-17, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 28 individuals.  Thousands of individuals have been killed during the conflict.  Some 650,000 individuals have been internally-displaced and some 300,000 individuals have fled the country as refugees during the conflict.  MINUSCA consisted of 7,469 troops, 1,125 civilian police personnel, 91 military observers, and 174 international civilian staff personnel on December 31, 2014.  MINUSCA fatalities included two peacekeeping soldiers.

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Selected Bibliography:

Glasius, Marlies. 2008. “Global Justice Meets Local Civil Society: The International Criminal Court’s Investigation in the Central African Republic,” Alternatives, vol. 33, pp. 413-433.

Le Vine, Victor. 1968. “The Coup in the Central African Republic,” Africa Today, vol. 15 (2), pp. 12-14.

Mehler, Andreas. 2011. “Rebels and Parties: The Impact of Armed Insurgency on Representation in the Central African Republic,” Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 49 (1), pp. 115-139.

Meyer, Angela. 2011. Peace and Security Cooperation in Central Africa: Developments, Challenges, and Prospects, Discussion Paper #56, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala, Sweden.

Nunez Villaverde, Jesus A. 2010. MINURCAT: Achievement, Disappointments, and a Fragile Future.  Institute of Studies on Conflicts and Humanitarian Action.  Madrid, Spain.