21. Lebanon (1943-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (November 22, 1943-November 15, 1956): Lebanon formally achieved its independence from League of Nations (LON) mandate under French administration on November 22, 1943. French troops completed their withdrawal from the country on August 31, 1946. Parliamentary elections were held on May 25, 1947. President Bishara Khuri was re-elected on May 27, 1947. Government troops suppressed a rebellion led by Anton Saadeh near the Syrian border on July 6-7, 1949. Syrian troops intervened in support of the government. Anton Saadah was captured and executed in Beirut on July 8, 1949. President Bishara Khuri resigned on September 18, 1952, and Camille Chamoun was elected president by the Lebanese parliament on September 23, 1952. President Chamoun pursued modernization and westernization policies that were contrary to Lebanon’s traditional policies. President Chamoun expressed support for the pro-western Turkey-Iraq alliance (Baghdad Pact) on April 5, 1955.

Crisis Phase (November 16, 1956-April 9, 1958): On November 16, 1956, Prime Minister Abdullah Yafi and Minister of State Saib Salam resigned in protest after President Chamoun refused to condemn the British-French intervention in Egypt. Muslim opposition groups formed the United National Front (UNF), led by Kamal Jumblatt, Abdullah Yafi, Saib Salam, Rashid Karami, and Ahmad Assad, on April 1, 1957. The US agreed to provide military assistance to the government beginning on June 6, 1957. President Chamoun’s supporters won two-thirds of the seats in fraudulent parliamentary elections held in June 1957, but the UNF refused to recognize the election results.

Conflict Phase (April 10, 1958-September 24, 1958): Government troops and Muslim rebels clashed on April 10-14, 1958, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. Government troops and Muslim rebels clashed following the murder of Nassib Matni, a Maronite Christian newspaper editor opposed to the Chamoun government, on May 8, 1958. Riots occurred in Beirut and Tripoli from May 9-13, 1958, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals. The United Arab Republic provided military assistance to the Muslim rebels. The government accused the United Arab Republic of providing support for the Muslim rebels and closed its border with Syria on May 13, 1958. President Chamoun requested military assistance from the US, and the US deployed naval amphibious units of the Sixth Fleet near Lebanon on May 13, 1958. The US provided military assistance (small arms, ammunition, 18 M-41 tanks) to the government on May 14-28, 1958. Lebanon referred the matter of Syrian support of Muslim rebels to the League of Arab States (LAS) on May 21, 1958 and the United Nations (UN) Security Council on May 24, 1958. Government troops and Muslim rebels clashed near Tripoli on May 31, 1958, resulting in the deaths of six individuals.  The LAS attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties on June 2-5, 1958.  President Chamoun complained about “illegal infiltrations” from Syria to the UN Security Council on June 6, 1958. Government troops and Muslim rebels clashed near Beirut and Tripoli on June 6-7, 1958, resulting in the deaths of some 130 individuals. On June 11, 1958, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) to monitor the border between Lebanon and Syria.  UNOGIL consisted of 591 military observers from 21 countries commanded by Major-General Odd Bull of Norway.   Government troops and Muslim rebels clashed in Beirut on June 13-16, 1958, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals.  Government troops and Muslim rebels clashed near Beirut and Tripoli on June 28-July 1, 1958.  On July 8, 1958, President Chamoun announced that he would not succeed himself when the parliament met later in the month to elect a new president.  Following the assassination of King Faisal of Iraq on July 14, 1958, the Lebanese government requested US military intervention to protect the country’s political independence and territorial integrity. Some 15,000 US troops were deployed near Beirut beginning on July 15, 1958. Ambassador Robert Murphy of the US attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on July 16, 1958. General Fuad Chehab was elected president by the Chamber of Deputies on July 31, 1958, and he was inaugurated as president on September 23, 1958. Opposition leader, Rashid Karami, formed a government as prime minister on September 24, 1958. Some 2,000 individuals, including two US soldiers, were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 25, 1958-December 9, 1958): The US government expressed support for the government of Prime Minister Karami on September 27, 1958, and completed the withdrawal of troops from the country on October 25, 1958. The US provided economic assistance to the government beginning on October 29, 1958. UNOGIL was disbanded on December 9, 1958.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 10, 1958-April 22, 1969): President Chehab dissolved the parliament on May 5, 1960. Prime Minister Karami resigned on May 14, 1960, and Ahmed Daouk formed an interim government as prime minister on May 15, 1960. Parliamentary elections were held between June 12 and July 3, 1960. Supporters of former Prime Minister Karami won 11 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, and independents won 41 out of 99 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Goverment troops suppressed a right-wing military rebellion on December 31, 1961. Charles Helou was elected president by the parliament on August 18, 1964. President Helou resigned on October 19, 1968, but he resumed the position on October 20, 1968. Prime Minister Abdullah Yaffi resigned on January 15, 1969, and Rashid Karami formed a coalition government as prime minister on January 16, 1969.

Crisis Phase (April 23, 1969-April 29, 1969): Ten individuals were killed in political violence in Beirut on April 23, 1969. The government proclaimed a state-of-emergency on April 23, 1969. Iraq condemned the government on April 24, 1969. On April 24, 1969, Prime Minister Karami resigned after refusing to order government troops to take action against Palestinian militia forces in the country (Rashid Karami remained as provisional prime minister until October 22, 1969).

Conflict Phase (April 30, 1969-May 17, 1973): Government troops and Palestinian militia forces engaged in military hostilities on April 30-May 7, 1969. President Helou ordered Palestinian militia forces to leave the country on June 24, 1969. Government troops and Palestinian militia forces resumed military hostilities on October 18, 1969. President Boumedienne of Algeria expressed support for the Palestinian militia forces on October 22, 1969. Egypt mediated negotiations between government and Palestinian representatives from October 26 to November 2, 1969. The parties agreed to a cessation of military hostilities that went into effect on November 3, 1969. Rashid Karami formed a government on November 2, 1969. Government troops and Palestinian militia forces clashed on November 20, 1969, resulting in the deaths of three Palestinians. Rashid Karami formed a coalition government on November 24, 1969. Government troops and Palestinian militia forces clashed on May 12, 1970. Suleiman Franjieh was elected president by the parliament on August 17, 1970, and President Franjieh appointed Saeb Salam as prime minister on October 7, 1970. Parliamentary elections were held on April 16-30, 1972. Four individuals were killed in election-related violence. Prime Minister Saeb Salam resigned on April 13, 1973, and Amin Hafez formed a government as prime minister on April 25, 1973. Members of the Lebanese Revolutionary Guard (LRG) bombed an oil facility near Saida on April 14, 1973. Government troops and Palestinian rebels engaged in military hostilities beginning on May 1, 1973, and the government imposed a state-of-siege on May 7, 1973. Mahmoud Riad, Secretary-General of the LAS, Hassan Sabri Kholi of Egypt, and Foreign Minister Sheikh Sabah Ahmed Sabah of Kuwait attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties on May 8-9, 1973. The parties agreed to a ceasefire on May 17, 1973. Some 100 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 18, 1973-April 12, 1975): The government lifted the state-of-siege on May 23, 1973. Prime Minister Taqi Din Sulh resigned in September 1973, and Rashid Sulh formed a government as prime minister in December 1973. Twenty-seven Palestinians were massacred by Maronite Christians in Ayn Rummaneh on April 13, 1975.

Conflict Phase (April 13, 1975-October 18, 1976): Maronite Christians and Muslims clashed on April 13-15, 1975, resulting in the deaths of 100 individuals. The government of Prime Minister Rashid Sulh collapsed on May 15, 1975, and General Noureddin Rifai formed a military government on May 16, 1975. Prime Minister Rifai resigned on May 26, 1975, and President Suleiman Franjieh appointed Rashid Karami as prime minister on May 28, 1975. Maronite Christians and Muslims resumed military hostilities in Beirut on May 20, 1975, and Foreign Minister Abdel Halim Khaddam of Syria attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on May 25, 1975. President Franjieh ordered government troops to enforce a ceasefire between the parties on May 22, 1975. Maronite Christians and Muslims agreed to a ceasefire that went into effect on July 3, 1975. Muslims began a siege of Maronite Christians in Zegharta on September 10, 1975. Syria mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the parties on September 25, 1975, but the ceasefire collapsed on September 26, 1975. Maronite Christians and Muslims clashed in military hostilities in Beirut on December 8-9, 1975, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals. On January 5, 1976, the government cancelled the parliamentary elections scheduled for April 1976.  Muslim Druze tribesmen began a siege of Maronite Christians in Al Darmhour on January 13, 1976. Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) established a mission of 56 personnel to provide humanitarian assistance to civilians in Beirut beginning in 1976. The United Nations (UN) secretary-general appealed for a ceasefire on January 18, 1976. Prime Minister Karami resigned on January 18, 1976. Syria mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the parties on January 22, 1976, but the parties resumed military hostilities in Beirut on March 9, 1976. General Abdul Aziz Ahdab declared a state-of-emergency in Beirut on March 11, 1976, and he demanded the resignation of President Franjieh. President Franjieh rejected the resignation demand on March 12, 1976, and he fled to Juniyah on March 25, 1976. Syria mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the parties on April 1, 1976, but the parties resumed military hostilities in Beirut on April 20, 1976. Elias Sarkis was elected president by the parliament on May 8, 1976, and he was inaugurated as president in Chtaura on September 23, 1976. France offered to deploy peacekeeping troops in Lebanon on May 21, 1976, but Prime Minister Karami rejected the offer on May 23, 1976. Some 12,000 Syrian troops intervened in support of the government on May 31, 1976. The LAS established the Symbolic Arab Security Force (SASF) consisting of 2,500 personnel (Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria) commanded by Major-General Mohammed Hassan Ghoneim of Egypt on June 9, 1976. The LAS appealed for a cessation of military hostilities, and established a conciliation commission (Algeria, Bahrain, Libya) on June 9, 1976. The parties agreed to a temporary ceasefire on June 13, 1976. Maronite Christians began a siege of the Palestinian refugee camp of Tal Zaatar near Beirut on June 23, 1976. The LAS demanded a cessation of military hostilities on July 2, 1976, and the parties agreed to a temporary ceasefire on July 3, 1976. Maronite Christians captured the Tal Zaatar refugee camp on August 12, 1976, resulting in the deaths of some 4,000 individuals. Maronite Christian leaders agreed to ceasefire negotiations on August 27, 1976. Prime Minister Karami offered to resign on September 25, 1976. Syrian troops and Palestinians engaged in military hostilities east of Beirut beginning on September 30, 1976. Saudi Arabia facilitated negotiations in Riyadh on October 17-18, 1976, and the parties agreed to a ceasefire on October 18, 1976. Some 10,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 19, 1976-April 3, 1977): The LAS approved the Riyadh Agreement on October 25, 1976. The LAS established the Arab Deterrent Force (ADF), and the SASF was disbanded on October 26, 1976. ADF troops, which consisted of 30,000 personnel from Egypt, Libya, Saudi Arabia, South Yemen, Sudan, and Syria, were deployed in Beirut on November 10, 1976. Syria mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the parties that went into effect on November 15, 1976. Selim Ahmad Hoss formed a government as prime minister on December 9, 1976. President Sarkis ordered Palestinians out of the country on January 13, 1977, and ADF troops and Palestinians clashed on February 10, 1977. Kamal Jumblatt, the Muslim Druze leader, was assassinated on March 16, 1977.

Conflict Phase (April 4, 1977-September 23, 1989): Syrian troops and Palestinians attacked Maronite Christian villages in southern Lebanon beginning on April 4, 1977. Maronite Christians and Palestinians engaged in military hostilities in southern Lebanon beginning on June 2, 1977. Israeli troops intervened in support of Maronite Christians against Palestinians in southern Lebanon beginning on July 3, 1977. Maronite Christians and Palestinians agreed to a ceasefire in southern Lebanon on September 26, 1977, and Israeli troops withdrew from Lebanon on September 27, 1977. Israeli military aircraft attacked Palestinian positions in southern Lebanon on November 9, 1977. Maronite Christians and Palestinians resumed military hostilities in southern Lebanon on January 16, 1978. Israeli troops intervened in southern Lebanon in support of Maronite Christians led by Major Saad Haddad on March 14, 1978. The UN secretary-general appealed for a ceasefire on March 27, 1978, and the parties agreed to a ceasefire on March 28, 1978. The government demanded an immediate Israeli troop withdrawal from southern Lebanon on April 4, 1978, and Israel began withdrawing its troops on April 11, 1978. Israeli troops completed their withdrawal from southern Lebanon on June 13, 1978. Syrian troops and Maronite Christians engaged in military hostilities in Beirut beginning on September 27, 1978, and the parties agreed to a ceasefire on October 7, 1978. On October 5, 1978, the UN secretary-general appointed Sadruddin Aga Khan as special envoy to attempt to facilitate the cessation of military hostilities. The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on October 6, 1978. The LAS established a conciliation commission (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria) in October 1978. Chafiq al-Wazzan formed a government as prime minister on October 25, 1980. ADF troops and Maronite Christians clashed near the town of Zahle between April 2 and June 30, 1981, resulting in the deaths of some 200 individuals. The LAS conciliation commission proposed a peace plan on June 9, 1981. The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on July 21, 1981. Special Envoy Philip Habib of the US mediated a ceasefire that went into effect in southern Lebanon on July 24, 1981. The parties resumed military hostilities in southern Lebanon on April 21, 1982, and the UN secretary-general appealed for a ceasefire on April 21, 1982. The LAS disbanded the ADF on September 6, 1982. Some 200 ADF personnel were killed during the mission.  On June 6, 1982, Israeli military forces launched a military offensive (Operation Peace for Galilee) against Palestinian forces in Lebanon.  On August 21, 1982, the Multinational Force (MNF I) – consisting of a maximum of 2,285 personnel, including 860 French troops, 850 US troops, and 575 Italian troops – was deployed to Lebanon to supervise the evacuation of some 8,000 Palestinians and 550 Syrians from the Beirut area and to provide protection for Palestinian non-combatants.  After completing its mission, the Multinational Force (MNF I) withdrew from Lebanon on September 10, 1982.  Bashir Gemayel was elected president by the Chamber of Deputies on August 23, 1982, but he was killed in a bombing in Beirut on September 14, 1982. Sixty other individuals were also killed in the bombing.  Amin Gemayel was elected president by the National Assembly on September 21, 1982, and he was formally sworn in as president on September 23, 1982.  Following a massacre in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut on September 15, 1982, the Multinational Force (MNF II) was deployed to Lebanon to assist the government in maintaining law and order in the Beirut area beginning on September 24, 1982.  The Multinational Force (MNF II) consisted of a maximum of 5,600 personnel, including 2,200 Italian troops, 1,800 US troops, 1,500 French troops, and 100 British troops.  Sixty-three individuals, including 17 Americans, were killed in the bombing of the US embassy in Beirut on April 18, 1983. The US and French military barracks were bombed on October 23, 1983, resulting in the deaths of 241 US soldiers and 58 French soldiers.  British and Italy troops withdrew on February 20, 1984.  US troops, which suffered a total of 265 fatalities during the mission, were withdrawn on February 26, 1984.  France withdrew its troops on March 31, 1984.  Some 89 French soldiers and two Italian soldiers were killed during the mission.  President Gemayel appointed General Michel Aoun as prime minister to head a transitional military government beginning on September 23, 1988. The LAS Summit of Heads-of-State established established a three-member conciliation commission (Algeria, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia) on May 26, 1989. The parties agreed to a ceasefire that went into effect on September 23, 1989. Some 165,000 individuals, including some 2,000 Syrian soldiers and 190 UNIFIL personnel, were killed during the conflict. Some 450,000 individuals were internally displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 24, 1989-June 18, 2001): The LAS conciliation commission mediated negotiations in Ta’if, Saudi Arabia from September 30 to October 22, 1989. The parties signed a peace agreement on October 24, 1989. The UN Security Council expressed support for the peace agreement on October 31, 1989, but General Michel Aoun rejected the peace agreement. Rene Moawad was elected president by the Chamber of Deputies on November 5, 1989, but he was assassinated in Beirut on November 22, 1989. Elias Hrawi, a Maronite Christian, was elected president by the Chamber of Deputies on November 24, 1989, and President Hrawi appointed Salim Huss as prime minister. Government troops and General Aoun’s military forces engaged in military hostilities in Beirut beginning on January 30, 1990. The Chamber of Deputies approved constitutional amendments on August 21, 1990, and the constitutional amendments went into effect on September 27, 1990. Syria troops launched a military offensive against General Aoun’s forces on October 13, 1990, and defeated General Aoun’s troops on October 14, 1990. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between September 1989 and October 1990.  A government of national reconciliation headed by Prime Minister Omar Abdul Hamid Karami was established on December 24, 1990. Prime Minister Karami resigned on May 13, 1992, and Rashid Sulh formed a new government on May 16, 1992. Parliamentary elections were held in August and September 1992. Maronite Christians largely boycotted the parliamentary elections. Rafiq Hariri, a Sunni Muslim, formed a new government on October 31, 1992. The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance to the government between March 4, 1993 and June 30, 2003.  President Hwari was re-elected by the Chamber of Deputies in October 1995. Parliamentary elections were held from August 18 to September 15, 1996, and Prime Minister Hariri formed a new government on November 7, 1996. General Emile Lahoud was elected president by the National Assembly on October 15, 1998, and he was inaugurated as president on November 24, 1998. Prime Minister Rafoq al-Hariri resigned, and Selim al-Hoss was appointed as prime minister on December 2, 1998. The UN sent a five-member landmine assessment mission headed by Wolfgang Hirsch to Lebanon on February 1-5, 1999. Israeli troops withdrew from southern Lebanon on May 24, 2000. Parliamentary elections were held on August 27-September 3, 2000, and a coalition headed by former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri won a majority of the seats in the parliament. Rafik Hariri was appointed as prime minister on October 23, 2000.  Syria withdrew its troops from Beirut on June 14-18, 2001.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence  from September 1989 to June 2001.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 19, 2001-February 13, 2005):  Pakistan agreed to provide mine-clearing assistance (300 military technicians) to the government on August 8, 2001.  Five individuals were killed in protests in Beirut on May 27, 2004.  Syria troops began a withdrawal from Lebanon on February 19, 2003.  Omar Karami formed a government as prime minister on October 21, 2004.

Crisis Phase (February 14, 2005-May 21, 2008):  Former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri and 20 other individuals were killed in a car-bombing in Beirut on February 14, 2005.  President George W. Bush of the US and President Jacques Chirac of France condemned the car-bombing.  Tens of thousands of Lebanese protested against the Syrian occupation on Lebanon beginning on February 21, 2005, and Prime Minister Omar Karami resigned on February 28, 2005.  President Lahoud re-appointed Omar Karami as prime minister on  March 10, 2005.  Prime Minister Karami resigned on April 13, 2005, and President Lahoud appointed Najib Mikati as prime minister on April 15, 2005.  Syrian troops completed their withdrawal from Lebanon on April 26, 2005.  Parliamentary elections were held from May 29 to June 19, 2005, and the Rafik Hariri Martyr List (RHML) headed by Saad Hariri won 72 out of 128 seats in the National Assembly.  The Hezbollah alliance, Resistance and Development Bloc (RDB), won 35 seats in the National Assembly.  The European Union (EU) sent 16 election experts, 24 long-term observers, and 50 short-term observers headed by Jose Ignacio Salafranca of Spain to monitor the parliamentary elections from May 10 to June 30, 2005.  Canada established the Canadian Observation Mission (COM-Lebanon) consisting of eleven observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from May 27 to June 1, 2005.  Fouad Siniora formed a government as prime minister on July 19, 2005.  Six government ministers, supporters of President Emile Lahoud, resigned from the cabinet on November 11-13, 2006.  Pierre Amine Gemayel, a Maronite Christian member of the parliament and Minister of Industry, was assassinated in Beirut on November 21, 2006.  The UN Security Council, Pope Benedict XVI, and Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain condemned the assassination of Pierre Amine Gemayel on November 21, 2006.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 22, 2008-June 16, 2011):

Crisis Phase (June 17, 2011-present):  Sunni Muslims clashed with Alawite (Shi’ite) Muslims in Tripoli on June 17, 2001, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.

[Sources: Alin, 1994, 54-59; Banks and Muller, 1998, 528-536; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 91, 157-158; Brecher and Wilkenfeld, 1997, 295-298, 646-647; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), May 24, 2000, July 16, 2000, August 29, 2000, September 4, 2000, October 23, 2000, June 17, 2001, August 8, 2001, April 3, 2002, May 27, 2004, February 14, 2005, March 9, 2005, April 26, 2005, May 29, 2005, June 20, 2005, June 30, 2005, November 13, 2006, November 21, 2006, November 24, 2006; Brogan, 1992, 33-352; Butterworth, 1976, 229-233; Clodfelter, 1992, 1038-1039, 1062-1065, 1075-1077; Curtis, 1964, 738-765; Degenhardt, 1988, 209-224; Donelan and Grieve, 1973, 135-142; European Union (EU) statement, May 30, 2005, June 20, 2005; Facts on File, July 3-9, 1949, April 10-16, 1958, May 8-14, 1958, May 15-21, 1958, May 22-28, 1958, May 29-June 4, 1958, June 5-11, 1958, June 12-18, 1958, June 19-25, 1958, June 26-July 2, 1958, July 10-16, 1958, October 30-November 5, 1958, May 29, 1976, June 5, 1976; Goria, 1985, 29-57; Hudson, 1995, 126-147; Keesing’s Record of World Events, October 11-18, 1958, July 30-August 6, 1960, December 6-13, 1969, December 12-19, 1970, July 1-8, 1972, June 4-10, 1973, December 31, 1976, June 19, 1981, January 1983, November 1989, September 1996, October 1998, November 1998, December 1998; Langer, 1972, 1300-1301; Meo, 1977, 93-126; Middle East Record (MER), 1969-1970; New York Times (NYT), February 14, 2005, March 10, 2005, March 20, 2005, April 26, 2005, November 13, 2006; Norton, 457-473; Nye, 1971, 161-162; Reuters, February 19, 2003; Tillema, 1991, 169-170, 177-181; Wainhouse, 1966, 373-390; Weisburd, 1997, 155-166.]