1. United States/Philippines (1898-1946)

 

Crisis Phase (December 10, 1898-October 31, 1899): The U.S. government formally acquired the Philippines from Spain with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898.  The U.S. government declared military rule in the Philippines on December 21, 1898.  Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino nationalist, proclaimed the independence of the Philippines on January 5, 1899.  Emilio Aguinaldo established a rebel government in Malolos on January 23, 1899, and Emilio Aguinaldo was named president of the rebel government.  U.S. troops and Filipinos clashed in Manila on February 4, 1899.  U.S. troops took control of Jolo on the island of Sulu on May 18, 1899.

Conflict Phase (November 1, 1899-April 13, 1902):  Emilio Aguinaldo led a rebellion against the U.S. military government in the Philippines beginning on November 1, 1899.  Some 200 Filipino rebels commanded by General Licerio Geronimo attacked U.S. troops commanded by General Henry Ware Lawton near San Mateo on December 19, 1899, resulting in the deaths of General Lawton and 13 other U.S. soldiers.  U.S. troops clashed with Filipino rebels near Catubig on April 15-19, 1900, resulting in the deaths of some 150 rebels and at least 21 U.S. soldiers.  U.S. troops clashed with Filipino rebels near Cagayan de Misamis on June 4, 1900, resulting in the deaths of nine U.S. soldiers and one rebel.  U.S. troops clashed with Filipino rebels near Pulang Lupa on the island of Marinduque on September 13, 1900, resulting in the deaths of four U.S. soldiers.  U.S. troops commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham, Jr. clashed with Filipino rebels commanded by General Juan Cailles near Mabitac on September 17, 1900, resulting in the deaths of 21 U.S. soldiers and 11 rebels.  Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by Filipino troops loyal to the U.S. government on March 23, 1901, and he was replaced by General Miguel Malvar as rebel leader.  Emilio Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the U.S. government on April 19, 1901. Moros attacked U.S. troops in the town of Balangiga on the island of Samar on September 28, 1901, resulting in the deaths of some 48 U.S. soldiers and 28 Moros.  The U.S. military established and maintained concentration camps (reconcentrados) with some 298,000 Filipinos in the province of Batangas from January to April 1902, resulting in the deaths of some 8,350 Filipinos.  U.S. and Filipino troops suppressed the rebellion with the surrender of General Miguel Malvar on April 16, 1902. Some 200,000 Filipinos, 4,234 U.S. soldiers, and 20,000 Filipino soldiers were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 17, 1902-June 15, 1913):  U.S. troops commanded by Colonel Frank Baldwin clashed with Moros near Bayan on the island of Mindanao on May 2, 1902, resulting in the deaths of some 350 Moros and eleven U.S. soldiers.  The U.S. Congress approved the Philippines Act on July 1, 1902, which provided the Philippines with limited self-government. The U.S. government replaced the military government in the Philippines with a civilian government headed by William Howard Taft on July 4, 1902.  U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt proclaimed a general amnesty for Filipino rebels on July 4, 1902.  General Luke Wright was sworn in as U.S. governor of the Philippines on February 1, 1904.  Some 790 U.S. troops commanded by Colonel J. W. Duncan clashed with Moros near Bud Dajo on March 5-7, 1906, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of Moro men, women, and children.  Some 21 U.S. soldiers were also killed during the clashes near Bud Dajo.  Henry Clay Ide was sworn in as U.S. governor of the Philippines on April 2, 1906, and James Smith was sworn in as U.S. governor of the Philippines on September 20, 1906. The Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) was established on March 12, 1907.  Legislative elections were held on July 30, 1907, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 59 out of 80 seats in the Philippines Assembly.  The Progressive Party (Partido Progresista – PP) won 16 seats in the Philippines Assembly.  The Philippines Assembly convened in Manila on October 16, 1907.  Legislative elections were held on November 2, 1909, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 62 out of 81 seats in the Philippines Assembly.  The Progressive Party (Partido Progresista – PP) won 17 seats in the Philippines Assembly.  Major General John J. Pershing was assumed the governorship of the Moro province on November 11, 1909.  On September 8, 1911, Major General Pershing issued an executive order for the complete disarmament of Moros in Moro province.  Legislative elections were held on June 4, 1912, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 62 out of 81 seats in the Philippines Assembly.  The Progressive Party (Partido Progresista – PP) won 16 seats in the Philippines Assembly.  U.S. troops suppressed the 14-year Moro rebellion in southern Philippines on June 15, 1913.  At least 10,000 Moros, 630 U.S. soldiers, 116 Philippines soldiers, and 750 Philippines police were killed during the rebellion.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 16, 1913-December 7, 1941):  Francis Harrison was sworn in as U.S. governor of the Philippines on August 21, 1913.  Legislative elections were held on June 6, 1916, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 75 out of 90 seats in the House of Representatives.  The U.S. Congress approved the Jones Act on August 29, 1916, which provided for a bicameral Philippines legislature including a House of Representatives and Senate.  Legislative elections were held on June 3, 1919, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 75 out of 90 seats in the House of Representatives.  General Leonard Wood was sworn in as U.S. governor of the Philippines on October 5, 1921.  Legislative elections were held on June 6, 1922, and the two major factions of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 64 out of 93 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Philippines Assembly approved a resolution on November 19, 1924, which demanded “full and complete independence” from the U.S.  Legislative elections were held on June 2, 1925, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 64 out of 92 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Philippines Assembly presented a petition demanding independence to the U.S. Congress on December 7, 1925.  The Philippines Assembly approved a resolution calling for a plebiscite on independence on July 26, 1926, but the resolution was vetoed by Governor Wood.  Governor Wood died on August 7, 1927, and Henry Stimson was sworn in as U.S. governor of the Philippines on December 13, 1927.  Dwight Davis was sworn in as U.S. governor of the Philippines on May 17, 1929.  Legislative elections were held on June 5, 1928, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 71 out of 94 seats in the House of Representatives.  Legislative elections were held on June 2, 1931, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 66 out of 86 seats in the House of Representatives.  The U.S. Congress approved the Tydings-McDuffie Act on March 24, 1934, which promised independence to the Philippines in 12 years.  Legislative elections were held on June 5, 1934, and the pro-independence faction of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 70 out of 92 seats in the House of Representatives.  The anti-independence faction of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista PN) won 19 seats in the House of Representatives.  As called for in the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934, elections for delegates to the Constitutional Convention were held on July 10, 1934.  Benigno Ramos led a right-wing uprising against the government in Bulacan and Laguna provinces on May 1-2, 1935, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals.  Benigno Ramos fled to Japan.  A constitution establishing the Commonwealth of the Philippines was approved by 96 percent of voters in a referendum held on May 14, 1935.  Legislative elections were held on September 15, 1935, and Manuel Luis Quezón’s faction (pro-independence faction) of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 64 out of 98 seats in the House of Representatives.  Sergio Osmeña’s faction of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista PN) won 19 seats in the House of Representatives.  Manuel Luis Quezón of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) was elected president of the Commonwealth on September 15, 1935.  The Commonwealth of the Philippines was formally established on November 15, 1935.  Legislative elections were held on November 8, 1938, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 98 out of 98 seats in the House of Representatives.  Several constitutional amendments, including the establishment of a bicameral Congress of the Philippines, were approved in a constitutional plebiscite held on June 18, 1940.  Legislative elections were held on November 2, 1941, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 95 out of 98 seats in the House of Representatives.  President Manuel Luis Quezón was re-elected with 82 percent of the vote on November 11, 1941.

Crisis Phase (December 8, 1941-October 17, 1945):  Japanese military aircraft attacked the U.S. government’s Clark airfield in the Philippines on December 8, 1941, resulting in the deaths of 80 U.S. military personnel.  Some 43,000 Japanese troops commanded by General Masaharu Homma invaded the islands of Luzon, Mindanao, and Jolo on December 22, 1941.  Japanese troops took control of Manila on January 2, 1942.  General Douglas MacArthur, commander of U.S. troops in the Philippines, was evacuated from Batann peninsula on March 11, 1942.  Some 12,000 U.S. troops and 58,000 Filipino troops commanded by General Edward King surrendered to Japanese troops on the island of Luzon on April 9, 1942.  U.S. government troops commanded by Major General Jonathan Wainwright surrendered to Japanese troops on the island of Corregidor on May 6, 1942.  President Manuel Luis Quezón fled to the U.S. and established the Commonwealth government-in-exile in Washington DC.  Under Japanese occupation, legislative elections for the National Assembly of the Second Republic of the Philippines were held on September 20, 1943, and the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Philinas – KALIBAPI led by Benigno Aquino, Sr. won 108 out of 108 seats in the National Assembly.  José Paciano Laurel was elected president of the Second Republic of the Philippines by the National Assembly on October 14, 1943.  President Manuel Luis Quezón died in the state of New York on August 1, 1944, and Vice-President Sergio Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth government-in-exile on August 1, 1944.  President José Paciano Laurel declared martial law in the Philippines on September 22, 1944, and declared a state of war with the U.S. and U.K. on September 23, 1944.  U.S. government troops commanded by General MacArthur landed on the island of Leyte on October 20, 1944.  Japanese naval ships withdrew from the Philippines region on October 25, 1944, and U.S. troops landed on the island of Samos on October 26, 1944.  U.S. troops captured the island of Leyte on December 24, 1944.  U.S. government troops attacked Japanese troops on the island of Luzon on January 9, 1945, and captured the island on August 15, 1945.  U.S. government troops captured the island of Corregidor on February 16-27, 1945.  U.S. government troops attacked Japanese troops on the island of Mindanao on April 17, 1945, and captured the island on August 15, 1945.  José Paciano Laurel, who had fled to Japan, formally resigned as president of the Philippines on August 17, 1945.  Japan formally surrendered to the U.S. on September 2, 1945.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 3, 1945-July 4, 1946):  Manuel Acuña Roxas of the liberal wing of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) was elected president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines with 55 percent of the vote on April 23, 1946, and was inaugurated as president on April 28, 1946.  Legislative elections were held on April 23, 1946, and the liberal wing of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 49 out of 98 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista,- PN) won 35 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Republic of the Philippines formally achieved its independence from the U.S. on July 4, 1946.

[Sources: Clodfelter, 1992, 911-913, 924-927; Jessup, 1998, 585-586; Keesing’s Record of World Events, July 20-27, 1946; Langer, 1972, 827, 937-938, 1118-1119, 1353-1354.]

 

Bibliography

Bingham, Woodbrigde, Hilary Conroy, and Frank W. Ikle. 1965. A History of Asia, Vol. II, Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.