10. Thailand (1932-present)

 

Crisis Phase (June 23, 1932-July 24, 1944): The government was overthrown in a rebellion led by Pridi Phanomyong and Colonel Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Sonngram) on June 23-24, 1932.  Pridi Phanomyong and Colonel Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Sonngram) proclaimed a constitutional monarchy on June 27, 1932.  Phraya Manopakorn served as prime minister from June 30, 1932 to June 20, 1933 when he was deposed in a military coup.  A new constitution was adopted by the National Assembly on December 10, 1932.  King Rama VII suspended the constitution and established a council of state on April 3, 1933.  Colonel Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena led a successful rebellion against the Council of State on June 20, 1933.  Colonel Phraya Phahon Phonphayahasena was appointed as prime minister on June 21, 1933.  Prince Boworadet led a royalist rebellion against the government beginning on October 11, 1933.

The government declared martial law, and government troops commanded by Lt. Colonel Plaek Phibunsongkhram suppressed the rebellion on October 25, 1933. Several hundred rebels and seventeen government soldiers and police were killed during the rebellion. As a result of a disagreement with the government, King Rama VII abdicated in favor of his nephew, Prince Ananda Mahidol, on March 2, 1935.  Elections for the 100-member National Assembly were held on November 7, 1937 and November 12, 1938.  Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena resigned as prime minister, and Lt. Colonel Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Sonngram) was appointed prime minister by the National Assembly on December 16, 1938.  Some 40 individuals were charged with treason on January 29, 1939, and 18 individuals were executed in February 1939.  Japanese government troops entered the country on December 8, 1941, and the government negotiated a military alliance with Japan on December 12, 1941. The Thai government declared war against the U.S. and Britain on January 25, 1942. The Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) was established on December 1, 1942.  Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Sonngram) was forced by the National Assembly to resign on July 24, 1944.  Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 25, 1944-November 6, 1947):  Khuang Abhaiwongse was appointed as prime minister on July 31, 1944. Prime Minister Khuang Abhaiwongse resigned on August 15, 1945, and Tawee Boonyaket formed a government as prime minister on August 31, 1945.  Seni Pramoj formed a government as prime minister on September 17, 1945.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 6, 1946, and and supporters of Pridi Phanomyong won a majority of seats in the National Assembly.  Khuang Abhaiwongse formed a government as prime minister on January 31, 1946.  Prime Minister Khuang Abhaiwongse resigned, and Pridi Banomyong formed a government as prime minister on March 24, 1946.  The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) was formally established on April 6, 1946.  King Rama VIII killed himself on June 9, 1946, and he was succeeded by his brother, Bhumibol Adulyadej (King Rama IX).  Prime Minister Pridi Banomyong resigned on August 21, 1946, and Rear Admiral Thawal Thamrong Navaswadhi form a government as prime minister on August 23, 1946.

Crisis Phase (November 7, 1947-August 4, 1965):  The government of Prime Minister Thawal Thamrong Navaswadhi was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. General Phun Chunhawan and Colonel Kard Kardsonggram on November 7, 1947.  Khuang Abhaiwongse was appointed as prime minister on November 10, 1947.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 29, 1948.  Prime Minister Khuang Abhaiwongse resigned on April 7, 1948, and Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Sonngram) formed a government as prime minister on April 8, 1948.  The government suppressed a military rebellion on October 1, 1948.  The government declared a state-of-emergency on February 23, 1949. The government suppressed a military rebellion in Bangkok on February 26-28, 1949.  Some 12 individuals were killed during the rebellion. A new constitution was promulgated in March 1949.  The U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance to the Thai government on October 17, 1950. Government troops suppressed a naval rebellion near Bangkok on June 29-July 1, 1951, resulting in the deaths of some 1,200 individuals.  Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Sonngram) was deposed in a military coup on November 29, 1951. The military leaders dissolved parliament and appointed the nine-member Provisional Executive Council.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) returned to Thailand on December 2, 1951, and King Bhumibol Adulyadej restored the 1932 constitution on December 6, 1951. King Bhumibol Adulyadej re-appointed Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Sonngram) as prime minister. The government suppressed a communist rebellion involving members of the military on November 9-10, 1952. The National Assembly banned communist activities on November 13, 1952.  Parliamentary elections were held on February 26, 1957, and Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram’s (Pibul Sonngram) party won 85 out of 160 seats.  The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 31 seats.  Opposition groups claimed fraud.  Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Sonngram) was deposed in a military coup led by Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat on September 16-17, 1957. King Bhumibol Adulyadej appointed Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat as military governor of Bangkok and dissolved the parliament on September 18, 1957. Pote Sarasin was appointed provisional prime minister on September 21, 1957.  Parliamentary elections were held on December 12, 1957, and the United Land Party (ULP) won 44 out of 160 seats.  The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 39 seats.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej appointed Lt. General Thanom Kittikachorn as prime minister on January 1, 1958. Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn was overthrown in a military coup led by Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat on October 20, 1958. Field Marshall Sarit Thanarat suspended the constitution, dissolved parliament, and abolished political parties on October 21, 1958.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej approved a new constitution on January 28, 1959. The Constituent Assembly elected Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat as prime minister on February 9, 1959. The governments of China and North Vietnam provided military assistance (military training) to the CPT beginning in 1959.  U.S. government troops were deployed in support of the government beginning on May 1, 1961 (some 48,000 US troops were deployed by 1969).  Prime Minister Sarit Thanarat died on December 8, 1963.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej appointed General Thanom Kittikachorn as prime minister on December 9, 1963.  Members of theCommunist Party of Thailand (CPT) established the Thailand Patriotic Front (TPF) on January 1, 1965.  Some 1,500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (August 5, 1965-December 27, 1982):  Communist rebels attacked government police in northeast Thailand (Nakhon Phanom Province) on August 5, 1965.  Communist rebels launched an insurgency against the government in northeast Thailand on August 7, 1965.  Some 110 individuals, including 45 policemen, were killed in communist rebel attacks in the first six months of 1966.  The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on February 22, 1968, and the constitution went into effect on June 20, 1968.  Communist rebels killed one security guard during an attack against the Royal Thai Air Force Base in Udon Thani on July 26, 1968.  Communist rebels launched a military offensive against government troops in northern Thailand on November 20, 1968.  The Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) established the Thai People’s Liberation Armed Forces (TPLAF) on January 1, 1969.  Parliamentary elections were held on February 11, 1969, and the United Thai People’s Party (UTPP) won 75 out of 219 seats in the House of Representatives.  Field Marshall Thanom Kittikachorn of the UTPP formed a government as prime minister on March 11, 1969.  Government police and communist rebels clashed near the Malaysian border on February 28-March 1, 1970, resulting in the deaths of three government policemen. Thailand and Malaysia agreed to support each other’s conflicts against communist rebels on March 7, 1970.  Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn suspended the constitution, dissolved the parliament, and declared martial law on November 17, 1971. Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn banned political parties on November 20, 1971. The National Executive Council chaired by Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn took control of the government on December 9, 1971.  An interim legislative assembly convened on December 15, 1972.  On October 14, 1973, the military government headed by Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn resigned after some 300 individuals were killed during violent clashes between government police and student demonstrators.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej appointed Sanya Dhammasakti, rector of Thammasat University in Bangkok, as prime minister on October 16, 1973.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej appointed a 2,346-member National Convention on December 11, 1973, and the National Convention selected a 299-member National Assembly on December 19, 1973. Prime Minister Sanya Dharmasakti resigned on May 21, 1974, but he formed a new government as prime minister on May 31, 1974.  Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence in Bangkok on July 3-5, 1974. The National Assembly approved a draft constitution on August 15, 1974, and the new constitution took effect on October 7, 1974.  The Social Action Party (Pak Kit Sangkhom - PKS) was established in 1974. Parliamentary elections were held on January 26, 1975, and the Democratic Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 72 out of 269 seats in the House of Representatives. The Social Justice Party (SJP) won 45 seats in the House of Representatives, and the PKS won 18 seats in the House of Representatives.  Seni Pramoj of the PP formed a government as prime minister on February 21, 1975.  The government of Prime Minister Seni Pramoj collapsed as a result of a vote of no-confidence in the House of Representatives on March 6, 1975, and Kukrit Pramoj of the PKS formed a coalition government as prime minister on March 17, 1975.  Government troops and communist rebels clashed in Nan province on April 9-11, 1975, resulting in the deaths of 33 government soldiers. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Bangkok on July 3-7, 1975, resulting in the deaths of 25 individuals.  Communist rebels attacked a government police station in Chawang in southern Thailand on August 9, 1975, resulting in the deaths of ten government policemen and five rebels.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej dissolved the National Assembly on January 12, 1976.  Parliamentary elections were held on April 4, 1976, and the Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 114 out of 279 seats in the House of Representatives. The Thai Nation Party (TNP) won 56 seats in the House of Representatives, and the PKS won 45 seats in the House of Representatives. Some 30 individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Seni Pramoj of the PP formed a coalition government as prime minister on April 21, 1976. Communist rebels attacked a military camp in southern Thailand on May 17, 1976, resulting in the deaths of 15 individuals. Government troops and communist rebels clashed near the village of Khao Khro between June 11 and July 4, 1976, resulting in the deaths of 150 rebels and 28 government soldiers.  U.S. government troops completed their withdrawal from the country on July 20, 1976. Government troops and right-wing activists clashed with left-wing students at Thammasat University on October 4-6, 1976, resulting in the deaths of some 41 students and two government policemen.  Prime Minister Seni Pramoj was overthrown in a military rebellion on October 6, 1976, and the National Administrative Reform Council (NARC) headed by Admiral Sangad Chalawyoo took control of the government on October 7, 1976. The NARC suspended political party activity on October 7, 1976, and a new constitution went into effect on October 22, 1976, and Thanin Kraivichien formed a military-dominated government as prime minister on October 22, 1976.  The government of Malaysia agreed to provide military assistance in support of the government against communist rebels on November 10, 1976, and some 2,000 Malaysian troops were deployed in Thailand on January 14, 1977. Malaysian government troops withdrew from Thailand on February 6, 1977. Malaysian government troops were deployed in Thailand from March 14 to April 20, 1977.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by General Chalard Hiranyasiri and Major Sawin Hiranyasiri on March 26, 1977, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. General Chalard Hiranyasiri was executed by the government on April 21, 1977. Prime Minister Kraivichien was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Admiral Sangad Chalawyoo on October 20, 1977. The 23-member Revolutionary Council (RC) chaired by Admiral Sangad Chalawyoo took control of the government on October 21, 1977. An interim constitution was promulgated on November 9, 1977. General Kriangsak Chamanan was appointed as prime minister on November 11, 1977. Government troops and Malaysian troops conducted joint operations against communist rebels in April-May 1978 and February 1979. The National Assembly approved a constitution on December 18, 1978. The Thai Citizens Party (Prachakorn Thai - PT) was established by Samak Sunthornvej in 1979.  Parliamentary elections were held on April 22, 1979, and the PKS won 82 out of 301 seats in the House of Representatives. The TNP won 38 seats in the House of Representatives. Fifteen individuals were killed in election-related violence. General Kriangsak Chamanan formed a government as prime minister on May 24, 1979. Communist rebels killed 27 government soldiers on May 30, 1979. Government troops launched a military offensive against communist rebels in Chiang Rai province between July 4 and August 3, 1979, resulting in the deaths or wounding of some 125 government soldiers and 100 rebels. Communist rebels killed seven government policemen on July 10, 1979, and rebels killed 35 government soldiers in Chiang Rai province on August 25, 1979. China ended military assistance to the CPT in 1979.  Prime Minister Kriangsak Chamanan resigned on February 29, 1980, and General Prem Tinsulanond formed a government as prime minister on March 12, 1980. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by General Sant Chitpatima in Bangkok on April 1-3, 1981, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Some 1,000 communist insurgents and supporters surrendered to government soldiers in northeast Thailand on December 1, 1982.  More than 2,000 communists, including some 220 armed insurgents, surrendered to government soldiers commanded by General Arthit Kamlang-ek in Tak Province on December 27, 1982.  Some 8,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 28, 1982-August 9, 1988):  Parliamentary elections were held on April 18, 1983, and the PKS won 92 out of 324 seats in the House of Representatives. The TNP 73 seats in the House of Representatives. General Prem Tinsulanond formed a coalition government as prime minister on April 30, 1983. Communist rebels killed 14 government soldiers in Surat Thani province on August 18-23, 1984. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion on September 9, 1985, resulting in the deaths of five individuals. The government declared a state-of-emergency on September 9, 1985, and lifted the state-of-emergency on September 16, 1985.  Parliamentary elections were held on July 27, 1986, and the Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 100 out of 347 seats in the House of Representatives. The Thai Nation Party (or Chart Thai Party-CTP) won 63 seats in the House of Representatives. Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda formed a coalition government following the elections. King Bhumibol Adulyadej dissolved the House of Representatives on April 29, 1988. Parliamentary elections were held on July 24, 1988, and the CTP won 87 out of 357 seats in the House of Representatives. The PKS won 54 seats in the House of Representatives.  Chatichai Choonhaven of the CT formed a coalition government as prime minister on August 9, 1988.

Post-Crisis Phase (August 10, 1988-February 22, 1991):  The New Aspiration Party (Pak Kuam Vuang Mai - PKVM) was established by General Chavalit Yongchaiyudh on October 11, 1990.

Crisis Phase (February 23, 1991-September 23, 1992):  Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhaven was overthrown in a military rebellion on February 23, 1991, and the National Peacekeeping Council (NPC) headed by General Sunthorn Kongsompong took control of the government on February 24, 1991. The U.S. government imposed economic (suspension of economic assistance) and military sanctions (suspensions of military assistance) against the NPC on February 23, 1991. The NPC suspended the constitution, suspended political party activity, and declared martial law on February 24, 1991. The NPC appointed the 292-member National Legislative Assembly on March 15, 1991. The government lifted martial law on May 3, 1991, and lifted the suspension on political party activity on May 9, 1991. A new constitution providing for an elected House of Representatives was approved in a referendum held on December 7, 1991. Parliamentary elections were held on March 22, 1992, and the PKS and three other pro-military political parties won 191 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives. The PKVM won 72 seats in the House of Representatives. General Suchinda Kraprayoon was appointed as prime minister on April 7, 1992, and the NPC was dissolved on April 21, 1992. Some 50,000 individuals demonstrated against Prime Minister Suchinda Kraprayoon in Bangkok on April 20, 1992. Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Bangkok on May 17-20, 1992, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 individuals. Prime Minister Suchinda Kraprayoon resigned on May 24, 1992, and Anand Panyarachun formed an interim government as prime minister on June 10, 1992. The parliament approved an amendment to the constitution which prohibited unelected politicians from serving as prime minister.  The parliament was dissolved on June 29, 1992.  Parliamentary elections were held on September 13, 1992, and the Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 79 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives. The Thai Nation Party (or Chart Thai Party-CTP) won 77 seats in the House of Representatives.  Chuan Leekpai of the PP was approved as prime minister of a coalition government on September 23, 1992.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 24, 1992-September 18, 2006): The U.S. government resumed economic and military assistance in 1993.  Parliamentary elections were held on July 2, 1995, and the conservative Thai Nation Party (or Chart Thai Party-CTP) won 92 out of 391 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 86 seats in the House of Representatives.  Banharn Silpa-Archa of the CTP formed a government as prime minister on July 13, 1995.  Parliamentary elections were held on November 17, 1996, and the New Aspiration Party (NAP) won 125 out of 393 seats in the House of Representatives. The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 123 seats in the House of Representatives. Six individuals were killed in election-related violence.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej appointed General Chavalit Yongchaiyudh as prime minister of a coalition government on November 25, 1996.  The 1997 "People's Constitution" went into effect on October 11, 1997.  Chuan Leekpai of the PP formed a government as prime minister on November 9, 1997.  The People's Power Party (Phak Palang Prachachon - PPPwas established by Lt. Colonel Garn Tienkaew on November 9, 1998.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 6, 2001, and the Thai Rak Thai Party (TRTP) headed by Thaksin Shinawatra won 248 out of 500 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 128 seats in the House of Representatives.  Thaksin Shinawatra formed a government as prime minister on February 5, 2001.  Parliamentary elections were held on February 6, 2005, and the Thai Rak Thai Party (TRTP) won 377 out of 500 seats in the House of Representatives.  Several thousand individuals demonstrated against the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra beginning on February 4, 2006.  The People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) was established by opponents of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra on February 8, 2006.  Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra dissolved the House of Representatives on February 24, 2006, and scheduled parliamentary elections for April 2, 2006.  On February 27, 2006, opposition political parties announced a boycott of parliamentary elections.  Some 150,000 individuals demonstrated in support of the prime minister on March 3, 2006.  On March 24, 2006, Abhisit Vejjajiva, leader of the Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP), called upon King Bhumibol Aduladej to appoint a new prime minister.  Parliamentary elections were held on April 2 and April 23, 2006, and the Thai Rak Thai Party (TRTP) won 462 out of 500 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) and other opposition political parties boycotted the parliamentary elections.  On April 4, 2006, Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra announced that he would step down as soon as a new prime minister was appointed.  On May 8, 2006, the Constitutional Court invalidated the results of the April parliamentary elections.

Crisis Phase (September 19, 2006-December 22, 2010): The government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra was deposed in a military coup on September 19, 2006.  The Council for Democratic Reform (CDR) headed by General Sonthi Boonyaratglin took control of the government, abrograted the 1997 Constitution, and declared martial law on September 20, 2006.  The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), European Union (EU), International Parliamentary Union (IPU), Prime Minister Helen Clark of New Zealand, Foreign Minister Per Stig Moller of Denmark, and Foreign Minister Jan Elliasson of Sweden condemned the military coup on September 20, 2006.  The U.S. government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the government on September 27, 2006.  General Surayud Chulanont was sworn in as interim prime minister on October 1, 2006.  Three individuals were killed in a bombing in Bangkok on December 31, 2006.  A new constitution, which weakened the power of the prime minister, was approved in a referendum on August 19, 2007.  Parliamentary elections were held on December 23, 2007, and the People's Power Party (Phak Palang Prachachon - PPP) won 226 out of 480 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 166 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent 37 observers from 15  countries to monitor the parliamentary elections from December 7 to December 25, 2007.  Samak Sundaravej of the PPP formed a coalition government as prime minister on January 29, 2008.  The U.S. government lifted military sanctions against the government on February 6, 2008.  Former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra returned to Thailand from political exile on February 28, 2008.  The People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) initiated anti-government protests in Bangkok on May 25, 2008.  Prime Minister Sundaravej survived a vote of no-confidence in the House of Representatives on June 27, 2008.  Former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and his wife fled to the United Kingdom on August 11, 2008.  Prime Minister Sundarajev declared a state  of emergency in Bangkok following the death of one individual during political protests in Bangkok on September 2, 2008.  The state of emergency was lifted on September 14, 2008.  The Constitution Court removed Samak Sundarajev as prime minister on September 9, 2008, and Somchai Wongsawat of the PPP formed a government as prime minister on September 17, 2008.  The Pheu Thai Party (PTP) was established as a replacement for the PPP on September 20, 2008.  Chaiwat Sinsuwongse and Chamlong Srimulang, PAD leaders, were arrested on October 4-5, 2008.  Two individuals were killed during PAD demonstrations in Bangkok on October 6, 2008.  The Constitutional Court formally dissolved the PPP and CTP on December 2, 2008, and the PAD ended their anti-government protests on December 3, 2008.  Prime Minister Wongsawat resigned on December 2, 2008, and Deputy Prime Minister Chaovarat Chanweerakul served as Acting Prime Minister until December 17, 2008.  Abhisit Vejjajiva of the Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) formed a government as prime minister on December 17, 2008.  The National United Front of Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD), consisting of supporters of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, began anti-government protests on April 8, 2009.  Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva declared a state of emergency in Bangkok and five provinces on April 12, 2009. Government soldiers suppressed UDD protests in Bangkok on April 13-14, 2009, and the state of emergency was lifted in April 24, 2009.  The UDD, also known as the "Red Shirts", renewed anti-government protests in Bangkok on March 12, 2010.  The government declared a state-of-emergency in Bangkok on April 8, 2010.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon appealed for peaceful negotiations on May 14, 2010.  Government soldiers suppressed the Red Shirt protests in Bangkok on May 19, 2010.  Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva survived a vote of no-confidence in the House of Representatives on June 2, 2010.  The government extended the state of emergency in Bangkok and 19 provinces, but lifted the state of emergency in five provinces on July 6, 2010.  The government lifted the state of emergency in Bangkok and surrounding provinces on December 22, 2010.  Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 23, 2010-present):  Parliamentary elections were held on July 3, 2011, and the Pheu Thai Party (PTP) won 265 out of 500 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Democrat Party (Pak Prachathipat - PP) won 159 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent 60 observers from 20 countries to monitor the parliamentary elections from June 3 to July 5, 2011.  Yingluck Shinawatra of the PTP was elected prime ministers by the House of Representatives on August 5, 2011, and she was formally appointed as prime minister by King Bhumibol Adulyadej on August 8, 2011.

[Sources: Arnold et al., 1991, 335-338; Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) press release, September 20, 2006; Associated Press (AP), September 20, 2006; Banks and Muller, 1998, 908-913; Basche, 1971; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), February 7, 2005, March 9, 2005, February 25, 2006, February 27, 2006, March 20, 2006, April 3, 2006, May 8, 2006, September 19, 2006, September 20, 2006, December 31, 2006, December 23, 2007, December 24, 2007, February 7, 2008, October 10, 2008, April 7, 2010, May 20, 2010, June 2, 2010, July 6, 2010, July 3, 2011, July 4, 2011, August 5, 2011; Christian Science Monitor (CSM), April 13, 2010; Clodfelter, 1992, 1132-1133, 1139; Darling, 1960, 347-360; Degenhardt, 1988, 364-371; Facts on File, June 29-July 5, 1951, November 30-December 6, 1951, September 12-18, 1957, January 1-8, 1958, February 5-11, 1959; March 5-11, 1970, November 11-17, 1971, August 3, 1974, March 1, 1975, March 22, 1975, April 26, 1975, August 16, 1975, January 17, 1976, April 10, 1976, May 1, 1976, June 5, 1976, October 9, 1976, October 16, 1976, April 2, 1977, April 30, 1977, April 27, 1979, January 11, 2001, February 15, 2001; Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) press release, September 20, 2006; Jessup, 1998, 726-731; Keesing's Record of World Events, November 29-December 6, 1947, April 17-24, 1948, November 6-13, 1948, March 5-12, 1949, December 15-22, 1951, November 22-29, 1952, September 21-28, 1957, November 8-15, 1958, March 7-14, 1959, December 28, 1963-January 4, 1964, April 12-19, 1969, January 8-15, 1972, November 19-25, 1973, April 8-14, 1974, July 1-7, 1974, April 14-20, 1975, September 15-21, 1975, March 5, 1976, July 16, 1976, December 17, 1976, March 10, 1978, September 7, 1979, June 6, 1980, July 10, 1981, July 9, 1982, March 1984, October 1985, September 1986, September 1988, February 1991, May 1991, March 1992, April 1992, May 1992, June 1992, September 1992, November 1996; Langer, 1972, 1104-1105, 1322-1324; New York Times (NYT), December 28, 1982, April 2, 2006, September 20, 2006; Nuechterlein, 1965; Reuters, December 21, 2010, June 17, 2012; Stowe, 1991; Terwiel, 1983; The Guardian, December 21, 2010; Washington Post, April 24, 2006, September 24, 2006, October 1, 2006; Wyatt, 1984; Xinhua News Agency, September 20, 2006.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Baker, Chris and Pasuk Phongpaichit. 2009. A History of Thailand, 2nd Edition, Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press,

Basche, James. 1971. Thailand: Land of the Free. New York: Caplinger Publishing Co., Inc.

Darling, Frank C. 1960. "Marshal Sarit and Absolutist Rule in Thailand." Pacific Affairs 33 (December): 347-360.

Nuechterlein, Donald E. 1965. Thailand and the Struggle for Southeast Asia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

Stowe, Judith A. 1991. Siam Becomes Thailand: A Story of Intrigue. London: Hurst & Company.

Terwiel, B. J. 1983. A History of Modern Thailand, 1767-1942. St. Lucia, London, and New York: University of Queensland
Press.

Wyatt, David K. 1984. Thailand: A Short History. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.