14. Nepal (1946-present)

 

Crisis Phase (October 31, 1946-November 10, 1950):  On October 31, 1946, the All-India Nepali National Congress was established in Varanasi, India in opposition to the Nepalese government, which had been dominated by the Rana family for many years.  At a conference held in Bhawanipur, India (near Calcutta) on January 25-26, 1947, the Nepali National Congress (NNC) was formally established with imprisoned Tanka Prasad Acharya elected as president and Bisheshwar Prashad (B. P.) Koirala elected as acting-president of the NNC.  Tanka Prasad Acharya, who was one of the founders of the Nepal Praja Parishad (Nepal People’s Council) in 1935, had been sentenced to death (later commuted to life imprisonment) by the Nepal government in 1940.  The NNC launched nationwide demonstrations against the Nepalese government beginning on March 13, 1947.  Girija Prasad (G. P.) Koirala and Bisheshwar Prashad (B. P.) Koirala were arrested by government police after entering the country from India in March 1947.

Prime Minister Padma Shamsher requested assistance from Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India in the drafting of a constitution for Nepal in 1947.  On January 16, 1948, Prime Minister Padma Shamsher promulgated a new constitution (“Government of Nepal Act of 1948“), which went into effect on April 1, 1948.  Prime Minister Padma Shamsher resigned after conservative members of the Rana family opposed the new constitution, and Mohan Shamsher of the Rana family formed a government as prime minister on April 30, 1948.  Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher suspended the constitution and banned the NNC on May 1, 1948.  The Nepal Democratic Congress (NDC) was established by progressive members of the Rana family in Calcutta, India on August 4, 1948.  Bisheshwar Prashad (B. P.) Koirala, leader of the NNC, was arrested again in Kathmandu in November 1948.  The Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) was established by Puspa Lal Shrestha and other Nepalese in Calcutta on April 22, 1949.  Bisheshwar Prashad (B. P.) Koirala was released from prison in May 1949. The NNC and NDC merged to form the Nepali Congress (NC)in Calcutta on April 9, 1950, and Matrika Prasad (M. P.) Koirala was elected president of the NC.  The Nepal parliament convened in Kathmandu on September 22, 1950.  The government suppressed an attempted assassination of Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher by supporters of the NC on September 29, 1950.  King Tribhubana Bir Bikram sought refuge in the Indian embassy in Kathmandu on November 6, 1950, and he was overthrown by Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher on November 7, 1950. King Tribhubana was flown to New Delhi, India on November 10, 1950.

Conflict Phase (November 11, 1950-January 16, 1951):  Nepali Congress (NC) supporters led by Major-General Subarna Shamsher rebelled against the government of Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher in southern Nepal beginning on November 11, 1950.  NC rebels (Mukti Sena) captured Birganj in south central Nepal on November 11-12, 1950. The NC established a provisional government headed by Tej Bahadur Amatya in Birganj on November 12, 1950. Burma had provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the NC prior to the outbreak of military hostilities, and Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah of Kashmir provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) during the conflict. NC rebels captured Udaypur Gadhi on November 12, 1950. NC rebels commanded by K. I. Singh attacked Bhairahawa on November 13, 1950, resulting in the deaths of four rebels. NC rebels attacked government troops in Bhairahaw on November 15, 1950, resulting in the deaths of 12 rebels. NC rebels captured Rangeli on November 16, 1950. NC rebels clashed with government troops in Jhapa, and captured Haraicha on November 19, 1950. Government police fired on NC supporters in Gaur on November 19, 1950, resulting in the deaths of 12 individuals. NC rebels commanded by K. I. Singh attacked Bhairahawa for the second time on November 20, 1950. Government troops commanded by Raj Shamsher recaptured Birganj on November 20, 1950, resulting in the deaths of some 20 rebels. Prime Minister Nehru of India mediated negotiations between the parties beginning on November 24, 1950. NC rebels captured Dingla and Khotang on December 10-11, 1950. NC rebels attacked government troops in Biratnagar beginning on December 11, 1950, and the NC rebels captured Biratnagar on December 23, 1950. Some 22 government soldiers were killed during the attack. The NC established a provisional government headed by Keshav Prasad (K. P.) Koirala in Biratnagar on December 24, 1950. NC rebels captured Jhapa on December 14, 1950.  India mediated negotiations between the parties beginning on December 24, 1950.  NC rebels and government troops commanded by Krishna Bahadur clashed near Lauki on January 3, 1951, resulting in the deaths of 16 government soldiers. NC supporters captured Gorkha on January 10, 1951. Prime Minister Nehru of India appealed to the NC for a cessation of military hostilities on January 10, 1951. Government police fired on NC supporters in Bandipur on January 14, 1951, resulting in the deaths of six individuals. The NC agreed to a cessation of military hostilities mediated by Prime Minister Nehru on January 16, 1951. Some 100 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 17, 1951-November 30, 1961): Some 300 Nepali Congress (NC) rebels led by K. I. Singh continued the rebellion in western Nepal. NC rebels killed 64 individuals on February 11, 1951. India mediated a formal peace agreement between the parties on February 12, 1951, and King Tribhubana returned to Nepal on February 15, 1951. Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher formed a coalition government including members of the NC on February 18, 1951. Indian troops intervened in support of the government. K. I. Singh and 100 rebels were captured by government troops on February 21, 1951. The Vir Gorkha Dal (“Brave Gorkga Organization”) led by Randhir Subba and Bharat Shamsher rebelled against the government in Kathmandu on April 9, 1951, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. The government ordered the arrest of members of the Vir Gorkha Dal on April 11, 1951, and the government formally banned the Vir Gorkha Dal on April 15, 1951. A political crisis erupted after King Tribhubana stripped Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher of his position as supreme commander of the military on April 16, 1951. Prime Minister Nehru of India mediated negotiations between the parties in New Delhi on May 10-16, 1951, and the parties agreed to established a 40-member advisory assembly.  Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher formed a new government with the NC on June 10, 1951. Government police fired on student demonstrators in Kathmandu on November 6, 1951, and the NC government ministers resigned on November 10, 1951. Prime Minister Mohan Shumsher resigned on November 12, 1951, and Matrieka Prasad (M. P.) Koirala of the Nepali Congress (NC) formed a government as prime minister on November 16, 1951.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion led by K. I. Singh in Kathmandu on January 22-24, 1952, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  King Tribhubana declared a state-of-emergency on January 23, 1952.  The government banned the Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) and Rashtriya Mahasabha on January 25, 1952.  India provided military assistance (some 200 military personnel) to Nepal beginning on February 27, 1952 (India discontinued military assistance on August 18, 1970).  The 40-member Advisory Assembly convened in Kathmandu on July 4, 1952.  Accused of violating party principles and acting against the constitution, Prime Minister M. P. Koirala was expelled from the NC on July 25, 1952.  Prime Minister M. P. Koirala resigned on August 6, 1952, and King Tribhubana assumed control of the government on August 10, 1952.  King Tribhubana dissolved the Advisory Assembly on September 4, 1952.  M. P. Koirala and other dissidents from the Nepali Congress (NC) formed the National Democratic Party (NDP) in June 1953.  M. P. Koirala of the NDP formed a government as prime minister in 1953.  Municipal elections were held in Kathmandu on September 2, 1953, and candidates of the banned CPN won some 50 percent of the vote.  Indian troops intervened in support of the government in 1953. A 112-member Advisory Assembly convened in Kathmandu on May 28, 1954.  The NC launched a civil disobedience movement on January 10, 1955, and Prime Minister M. P. Koirala resigned on January 31, 1955.  The Royal Council of State refused to accept the resignation of Prime Minister M. P. Koirala.  King Tribhubana dissolved the Royal Council of State on February 18, 1955, and vested royal powers in Crown Prince Mahendra Bir Bikram.  Crown Prince Mahendra accepted the resignation of Prime Minister M. P. Koirala on March 2, 1955.  King Tribhubana died on March 13, 1955, and Crown Prince Mahendra was proclaimed King on March 14, 1955.  King Mahendra dissolved the Advisory Assembly on July 10, 1955, and he took direct control of the government.  The NC elected Subarna Shamsher as party president on January 25, 1956.  Tanka Prasad Acharya of the Nepal Praja Parishad (NPP) formed a government as prime minister on January 27, 1956.  B. P. Koirala was elected as president of the NC on May 23, 1957.  Prime Minister Tanka Prasad Acharya resigned on July 13, 1957, and K. I. Singh of the United Democratic Party (UDP) formed a government as prime minister on July 26, 1957.  The NC, NNC, and PP formed the Democratic Front (DF) on August 9, 1957.  On September 30, 1957, the government announced the postponement of the national elections which were scheduled for October 8, 1957.  Prime Minister K. I. Singh resigned on November 14, 1957, and King Mahendra assumed direct control of the government.  The DF launched a civil disobedience campaign in protest of the postponement of the national elections beginning on December 7, 1957.  King Mahendra formed a government composed of representatives of the DF on February 1, 1958.  The NC ended its civil disobedience campaign on February 4, 1958.  King Mahendra proclaimed a new constitution on February 12, 1959, which established a parliament consisting of a 109 member-lower house (House of Representatives) and a 36 member-upper house (Mahasabha).  Parliamentary elections were held from February 18 to April 3, 1959, and the NC won 74 out of 109 seats in the House of Representatives.  Prime Minister Subarna Shamsher resigned on May 4, 1959, and B. P. Koirala of the NC formed a government as prime minister on May 27, 1959.  The UDP, PP, and Prajatantrik Mahasabha (PM) formed the National Democratic Front (NDF) in opposition to the government on June 1, 1959.  Government police fired on demonstrators in Gurkha (Gorkha) on October 25, 1960, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.  King Mahendra deposed Prime Minister B. P. Koirala, dissolved the parliament, and declared a state-of-emergency on December 15, 1960.  B. P. Koirala and other NC leaders were imprisoned.  King Mahendra banned political parties on January 5, 1961.  Some 250 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (December 1, 1961-November 8, 1962):  The NC launched a rebellion against the government on December 1, 1961.  Government police and NC rebels clashed in Dang District on February 20, 1962, resulting in the death of one rebel.  NC rebels attacked a customs post in Birganj District on February 23, 1962.  Government troops and NC rebels clashed in eastern Nepal on March 23-25, 1962, resulting in the deaths of four rebels and one government soldier. NC rebels captured Thori on April 13, 1962, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers. Nepal accused India of supporting NC rebels in April 1962. Government troops and NC rebels clashed in the Thori area on August 5, 1962, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers. China expressed support for the government of King Mahendra in June 1962. Government troops and NC rebels led by Raja Ram Jung clashed near Bhajang on September 30-October 3, 1962, resulting in the deaths of 11 rebels. The NC suspended their rebellion against the government on November 8, 1962.  Some 100 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (November 9, 1962-February 12, 1996):  King Mahendra proclaimed a new constitution on December 16, 1962, which provided for the establishment of a non-party political system. King Mahendra appointed Tulsi Giri as prime minister on April 2, 1963.  King Mahendra proclaimed the end of the state-of-emergency and the establishment of the panchayat (non-party) system on April 13, 1963. The 125-member National Panchayat was inaugurated by King Mahendra on April 14, 1963.  On October 30, 1968, former Prime Minister B. P. Koirala was released after serving nearly eight years in prison.  Prince Birendra Bir Bikram assumed the throne following the death of his father, King Mahendra, on January 31, 1972.  On November 17, 1975, B. P. Koirala was sentenced to death in abstentia for his anti-government activities (B. P. Koirala was in exile in India).  B. P. Koirala returned to Nepal from exile in India on December 30, 1976.  Prime Minister Tulsi Giri resigned on September 9, 1977, and Kirti Nidhi Bista was appointed as prime minister on September 12, 1977. Pro-democracy demonstrations occurred in Kathmandu beginning on April 6, 1979. On May 24, 1979, King Birendra announced that a referendum would be held to decide between a multi-party system and the non-party (panchayat)system. The panchayat system was supported by some 55 percent of the voters in a referendum held on May 2, 1980.  King Birendra established the Constitutional Reform Commission (CRC) on May 21, 1980. Surya Bahadur Thapa formed a government as prime minister June 1, 1980. The CRC submitted a report in September 1980. King Birendra announced a constitutional amendment on December 15, 1980, providing for universal adult franchise and the election of the prime minister in the parliament. Parliamentary elections were held on May 9, 1981. Surya Bahadur Thapa formed a government as prime minister on June 16, 1981.  Former Prime Minister and NC leader, B. P. Koirala died on July 21, 1982.  Prime Minister Thapa resigned on July 11, 1983, and Lokendra Bahadur Chand formed a government as prime minister on July 12, 1983.  The NC organized a nationwide civil disobedience campaign against the government beginning on May 23, 1985.  Some 12,000 NC members and supporters were imprisoned.  Six individuals were killed in a bombing in Katmandu on June 20, 1985, and some 1,400 individuals were arrested for their involvement in the bombing. Prime Minister Chand resigned on March 20, 1986, and Nagendra Prasad Rijal formed a government as interim prime minister on March 21, 1986. Parliamentary elections were held on May 12, 1986, and Marich Man Singh Shrestha formed a government as prime minister on June 13, 1986.  The Nepali Congress (NC) and several communist groups established the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD) in opposition to the government on February 18, 1990. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Jaddukuha on February 18-19, 1990, resulting in the deaths of eleven individuals. Government police fired on demonstrators in Kathmandu on March 30-31, 1990, resulting in the deaths of six individuals. Government police fired on demonstrators in Kirtipur on April 2, 1990, resulting in the deaths of five individuals. King Birendra dismissed Prime Minister Shrestha, and appointed Lokendra Bahadur Chand as prime minister on April 6, 1990. Government police fired on demonstrators near the royal palace in Kathmandu on April 6, 1990, resulting in the deaths of some 150 individuals. King Birendra lifted the ban on political parties and proclaimed a multiparty system on April 8, 1990. King Birendra appointed Krishna Prasad Bhattarai of the NC as prime minister on April 19, 1990. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Kathmandu on April 23, 1990, resulting in the deaths of six government policemen. King Birendra granted amnesty for political prisoners on May 17, 1990. King Birendra approved the CRC’s draft constitution, which established a multiparty democratic system under a constitutional monarchy, on September 10, 1990, and the constitution went into effect on November 9, 1990.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 12, 1991, and the NC won 114 out of 205 seats in the House of Representatives.  Girija Prasad (G. P.) Koirala of the NC formed a government as prime minister on May 26, 1991. The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) sent eight observers to monitor the parliamentary elections, as a part of a 65-member multinational observation group coordinated by the Nepal Election Observation Committee (NEOC). The International Federation of Human Rights (IFHR) sent two observers to monitor the election process from May 8 to May 16, 1991. Twelve individuals were killed in political violence in Kathmandu on April 6-12, 1992. Local elections were held in May and June 1992. Twenty-five individuals were killed in political violence in Kathmandu on June 25-29, 1993. Prime Minister Koirala submitted his resignation to King Birendra on July 10, 1994, and King Birendra dissolved the House of Representatives on July 11, 1994. Parliamentary elections were held on November 15, 1994, and the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist and Leninist (CPN-UML) won 88 out of 205 seats in the House of Representatives. The NC won 83 seats in the House of Representatives. Five individuals were killed in political violence on November 16, 1994. Man Mohan Adhikari, leader of the CPN-UML, formed a coalition government as prime minister on November 29, 1994. King Birenda dissolved the House of Representatives on June 13, 1995, but the Supreme Court nullified the dissolution on August 28, 1995. Prime Minister Mohan Adhikari resigned after a vote of no-confidence on September 10, 1995. The NC, Rashtriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), and the Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP) formed a coalition government headed by Sher Bahadur Deuba as prime minister on September 12, 1995.  Some 250 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (February 13, 1996-January 29, 2003): The Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (CPN-Maoist) headed by Puspha Kamal Dalal rebelled against the government beginning on February 13, 1996. Government police suppressed and detained demonstrators in Kathmandu on March 17, 1996. On March 17, 1996, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for the detentions of Nepalese demonstrators. Prime Minister Deuba resigned on March 6, 1997, and Lokendra Bahadur Chand as formed a RPP-UML-NSP coalition government as prime minister on March 12, 1997. Prime Minister Chand lost a vote of no-confidence in the House of Representatives on October 4, 1997, and Surya Bahadur Thapa of the RPP formed a coalition government on October 6, 1997. Prime Minister Thapa resigned on April 10, 1998, and G. P. Koirala of the NC formed a minority government on April 15, 1998. Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala formed a coalition government with the UML and NSP on December 23, 1998. Prime Minister G. P. Koirala won a vote of no-confidence in the House of Representatives on January 14, 1999, but King Birendra dissolved the House of Representatives on January 15, 1999.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 3 and May 17, 1999, and the Nepali Congress (NC) won 113 out of 205 seats in the House of Representatives. The Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) won 68 seats in the House of Representatives. Five individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, leader of the NC, formed a government as prime minister on May 27, 1999.  Government police and supporters of opposition political parties clashed in Kathmandu on December 9, 1999, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Prime Minister Bhattarai resigned on March 16, 2000.  Britain provided military assistance to the government beginning in 2000.  Government police and communist demonstrators clashed in Lamjung on May 27-29, 2001, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Crown Prince Dipendra killed King Birendra and seven other members of the royal family on June 1, 2001. Prince Gyanendra was named acting king by the State Council on June 2, 2001. Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala resigned on July 19, 2001, and Sher Bahadur Deuba of the NC formed a government as prime minister on July 26, 2001. Maoist rebels attacked the home of Sher Bahadur Deuba in Bajura District on July 22, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 17 government policemen. Government and Maoist representatives held negotiations between August 30 and November 13, 2001. Maoist rebels withdrew from the four-month old ceasefire with the government on November 21, 2001. Government troops and Maoist rebels clashed on November 23-24, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 42 government troops and 80 rebels. King Gyanendra declared a nationwide state-of-emergency on November 26, 2001. Maoist rebels killed four government policemen on November 27, 2001. Some 45,000 government troops launched a military offensive against Maoist rebels on November 27, 2001. China and India expressed support for the government on November 29, 2001, and India agreed to provide military assistance to the government on November 29, 2001.  India offered military assistance to the Nepalese government on March 21, 2002.  The US provided military assistance (military equipment, weapons, and military training) to the government beginning in April 2002.  Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba was expelled from the NC on May 26, 2002. Government troops killed ten Maoist rebels in west Nepal on August 22, 2002. Maoist rebels killed nine government policemen near Sitapur on September 13, 2002. King Gyanendra dismissed Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba on October 4, 2002. Some 3,000 individuals demonstrated against King Gyanendra in Kathmandu on October 8, 2002. Government police killed 16 Maoist rebels on October 26-27, 2002.  Belgium provided military assistance (weapons) to the government beginning on January 8, 2003.  The government and Maoist rebels agreed to a ceasefire on January 29, 2003.  Some 7,200 individuals were killed, and some 100,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict between February 1996 and January 2003.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 30, 2003-August 26, 2003): Prime Minister Lokendra Bahadur Chand resigned on May 30, 2003.

Conflict Phase (August 28, 2003-May 3, 2006):  Maoist rebels unilaterally ended the ceasefire with the government on August 27, 2003.  Fifteen individuals were killed in political violence in Khotang District and other locations on September 27, 2003.  Government troops launched a military offensive against Maoist rebels in Accham District beginning on August 10, 2004.  Twenty government policemen were killed in Arghakhanchi District on December 15, 2004, and sixteen Maoist rebels were killed in Dailekh District on December 16, 2004.  Government troops and Maoist rebels clashed in Bhojpur District on March 2-3, 2004, resulting in the deaths of 29 government soldiers/policemen and 10 rebels.  Maoist rebels killed six government soldiers and policemen in the district of Dhading on May 11, 2004.  Government police and Maoist rebels clashed in Bhojpur District on May 12, 2004, resulting in the deaths of 16 rebels and two government policemen.  Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba formed a coalition government on July 5, 2004.  Government troops and Maoist rebels clashed in western Nepal on July 6, 2004, resulting in the deaths of 11 government soldiers and 11 rebels.  King Gyanendra dismissed the government of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba and declared a state-of-emergency on February 1, 2005.  Britain, India, and the US imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance and arms embargo) against the government on February 22, 2005.  China provided military assistance (arms and ammunition) to the government beginning in 2005.  King Gyanendra lifted the state-of-emergency on April 30, 2005.  India lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government on May 10, 2005.  The UN’s Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) established a human rights monitoring mission involving some 50 monitors in Nepal on May 7, 2005.  On July 6, 2005, India sent its first shipment of military equipment to Nepal after lifting military sanctions in May 2005.  China delivered military assistance (trucks, arms, ammunition) to the government on November 22-23, 2005.  UNICEF provided humanitarian assistance to Nepal beginning in November 2005.  Local elections, which were boycotted by opposition political groups, were held on February 8, 2006.  Government troops launched a military offensive against Maoist rebels in Palpa and Nawalparasi districts beginning on February 16, 2006.  Anti-monarchy protests occurred on April 6-24, 2006, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for negotiations between the parties on April 13, 2006.  King Gyanendra reinstated the parliament on April 24, 2006, and appointed Girija Prasad Koirala of the Nepali Congress (NC) as prime minister on April 25, 2006.  The government declared a ceasefire with the Maoist rebels on May 3, 2006.  Some 5,400 individuals were killed, and some 50,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict between August 2003 and May 2006.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 4, 2006-present):  Representatives of the government and Maoist rebels began negotiations on May 26, 2006.  On August 25, 2006, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Ian Martin of Britain as a personal representative to facilitate negotiations between the government and Maoist rebels.  Representatives of the government and Maoist rebels signed a peace agreement on November 21, 2006.  An interim constitution went into effect on January 15, 2007.  Groups representing the Madhesi ethnic community in southern Nepal, which comprise more than one-third of the country’s population, protested against the interim government between January 19 and February 28, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 24 individuals.  On January 23, 2007, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) to monitor the disarmament of rebels, to monitor the  ceasefire, to provide electoral assistance, and to monitor human rights conditions.  At maximum strength, UNMIN consisted of a maximum of 186 civilian arms monitors from 41 countries.  Ian Martin of Britain was appointed as UN Special Representative and Head of UNMIN on February 8, 2007.  Some 27 individuals were killed in political violence in the town of Gaur on March 21, 2007.  Two individuals were killed in bombings in Kathmandu on September 2, 2007.  Some 20 individuals were killed in political violence in southern Nepal on September 16-20, 2007.  The Maoists withdrew from the interim government on September 18, 2007.  The parliament voted to establish a “federal democratic republican state” on December 28, 2007.  On February 28, 2008, the United Democratic Madhesi Front (UDMF) ended their general strike after an agreement allotting the Madhesi people thirty percent of the seats in the Constituent Assembly.  Ten individuals, including four UNMIN arms monitors, died in a helicopter crash in Ramechhap District on March 3, 2008.  Three individuals, including a candidate representing the National People’s Front (NPF), were killed in political violence on March 18-19, 2008.  Government police killed six Maoists during clashes in Dang District on April 8, 2008.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in Surkhet on April 8-9, 2008.  Some 23 individuals were killed in pre-election violence throughout Nepal.  Constituent Assembly elections were held on April 10, 2008, and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists) won 220 out of 575 elected seats in the assembly.  The Nepali Congress (NC) won 110 seats and the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) won 103 seats in the assembly.  The European Union (EU) sent 120 observers from 24 countries – including ten election experts, 40 long-term observers, and 70 short-term observers – led by Jan Mulder from the Netherlands to monitor the elections from March 2 to May 10, 2008.  The European Parliament (EP) also sent a seven member delegation headed by Josep Borrell Fontelles from Spain to monitor the elections.  Japan sent 24 observers to monitor the elections from March 29 to April 13, 2008.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 13 long-term observers and 62 short-term observers from more than 20 countries to monitor the elections from March 9 to April 12, 2008.  One politician from the Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) was killed in political violence on April 18, 2008.  The Constituent Assembly formally abolished the Nepalese monarchy on May 28, 2008.  The Constituent Assembly elected Ram Baran Yadav of the NC as president on July 21, 2008, and Ram Baran Yadav was sworn in as president on July 23, 2008.  The Constituent Assembly elected Pushpa Kamal Dahal (“Prachanda”) of the CPN-Maoists as prime minister on August 15, 2008, and Pushpa Kamal Dahal was sworn in as prime minister on August 18, 2008.  Three individuals were killed in a bombing in Rautahat District on October 14, 2008.  Karin Landgren of Sweden replaced Ian Martin of Britain as UN Special Representative and Head of UNMIN on February 6, 2009.  Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal resigned on May 4, 2009, and Madhav Kumar Nepal of the CPN-UML was elected by the Constituent Assembly on May 23, 2009.  Two individuals were killed in a bombing of a Roman Catholic Church in Kathmandu on May 23, 2009.  Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal was sworn in by the president on May 25, 2009.  India agreed to resume military assistance to the government on December 7, 2009. The CPN-Maoists staged a nationwide general strike in protest against the government on May 1-7, 2010.  Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal announced his resignation on June 30, 2010.  UNMIN was disbanded on January 15, 2011.  Jhala Nath Khanal of the CPN-UML was elected prime minister by the Constituent Assembly on February 3, 2011.  Prime Minister Jhala Nath Khanal resigned on August 14, 2011, and Baburam Bhattarai of the CPN-Maoists was elected prime minister by the Constituent Assembly on August 28, 2011.  On September 4, 2011, Prime Minister Bhattarai appointed several individuals to his cabinet, including seven Maoists.  Three individuals were killed in a bombing near government offices in Kathmandu on February 27, 2012.  On May 3, 2012, all of Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai’s cabinet ministers resigned so that the prime minister could appoint a “national consensus” government.  The Constituent Assembly failed to adopt a new constitution before its dissolution on May 27, 2012.  On May 28, 2012, three political parties withdrew from the governing coalition led by Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai.  On June 19, 2012, a hardline faction of the CPN-Maoists led by Khadga Bahadur Bishwakarma announced that it had established a new political party – the Communist Part of Nepal-Maoists (CPN-Maoists).  On March 14, 2013, Khil Raj Regmi, Chief Justice of Nepal, was sworn in as interim prime minister following the resignation of Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai.  The Nepal Supreme Court suspended the government’s attempt to establish a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate war crimes committed during the civil war.

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Selected Bibliography:

Chauhan, R. S. 1971. The Political Development in Nepal, 1950-1970. New Delhi: Associated Publishing House.

Jain, Girilal. 1959. India Meets China in Nepal. New York: Asia Publishing House.

Parmanand. 1982. The Nepali Congress Since its Inception: A Critical Assessment. New Delhi: B. R. Publishing Corp.

Phadnis, Urmila. 1981. “Nepal: The Politics of Referendum.” Pacific Affairs 54 (Fall): 431-454.

Shaha, Rishikesh. 1990. Modern Nepal: A Political History, 1769-1955. Riverdale, Md: The Riverdale Company.