Crisis Phase (December 27, 1949-April 25, 1950): Indonesia formally achieved its independence from the Netherlands as the US of Indonesia on December 27, 1949. Australia, Britain, Burma, Canada, Cuba, India, Pakistan, Philippines, and South Africa provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on December 27, 1949. Belgium, Taiwain, Egypt, Pourtugal, Switzerland, Turkey, and the US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on December 28, 1949. France and South Korea provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on December 30, 1949. Captain Westerling led a rebellion against the government in West Java beginning on January 23, 1950.
Conflict Phase (April 26, 1950-November 4, 1950): A group of rebel soldiers on the island of South Moluccas proclaimed the independence of the South Moluccas Republic on April 26, 1950. The United Nations Commission on Indonesia (UNCI) offered its good offices to resolve the dispute between the South Moluccas rebels and the Indonesian government on August 4, 1950, but the offer was rejected by the Indonesian government. Government troops and former Royal Netherlands Indies Army (KNIL)troops clashed in Macassar on August 5, 1950, resulting in the deaths of 22 former KNIL soldiers. The Republic of Indonesia was established on August 17, 1950, and Mohammed Natsir formed a government on September 6, 1950. Government troops launched a military offensive against the South Moluccas on September 28, 1950. The South Moluccas Republic appealed to the UNCI, Britain, US, and the World Council of Churches (WCC) for assistance on October 5, 1950. The UNCI offered its good offices and appealed to Indonesia to suspend military operations on October 6, 1950, but the offer and appeal were rejected by the Indonesian government on October 10, 1950. The Indonesian government suppressed the South Moluccas rebellion on November 4, 1950. Some 5,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.
Post-Conflict Phase (November 5, 1950-March 8, 1957): Darul Islam, a Muslim fundamentalist group, rebelled against the Indonesian government in central Java in 1951. Some 25,000 government troops were deployed in Java to suppress the Darul Islam rebellion on March 1, 1951. The government arrested some 2,000 communists in Java and Sumatra between August 5-26, 1951. Ali Sastroamidjojo of the Nationalist Party (NP) formed a government as prime minister on July 30, 1953. Muslim leaders proclaimed the formation of the Islamic Republic of Indonesia on September 21, 1953. President Achmed Sukarno banned opposition political parties in 1956. President Sukarno survived an attempted assassination on November 30, 1956. President Sukarno declared a state-of-siege in North Sumatra on December 25, 1956 and South Sumatra on December 28, 1956. A military council headed by Lt. Colonel Sumual took control of East Indonesia (Celebes, Moluccas, and Lesser Sunda islands) on March 2, 1957. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between November 1950 and March 1957.
Conflict Phase (March 9, 1957-September 25, 1961): Left-wing military rebellions broke out against the government in south Sumatra on March 9, 1957 and Borneo on March 12, 1957. Prime Minister Ali Sastroamidjojo resigned on March 14, 1957, and Djuanda Kartawidjaja formed a government as prime minister. President Sukarno declared a national state-of-emergency on March 14, 1957. The US rejected a government request for military assistance in July 1957. President Sukarno survived an assassination attempt in Jakarta on November 30, 1957, but five individuals were killed in the attempt. President Sukarno declared martial law on December 18, 1957. The Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia headed by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara was proclaimed in Padang in central Sumatra on February 15, 1958. President Sukarno rejected rebel demands on February 21, 1958, and government troops and military aircraft attacked leftist rebel targets near Padang on February 21-22, 1958. Darul Islam rebels killed eight government soldiers near Bandung on April 3, 1958. Government troops captured Padang on April 17, 1958 and Bukittinggi on May 4, 1958. The Soviet Union provided military assistance (military aircraft trainers) to the government beginning on May 6, 1958. Government troops suppressed the rebellion in central Sumatra on May 22, 1958. Government troops launched a military offensive against leftist rebels in East Indonesia on May 9, 1958, and government troops suppressed the rebellion in North Celebes on August 16, 1958. President Sukarno dissolved the Constituent Assembly and restored the 1945 constitution on July 5, 1959. Prime Minister Kartawidjaja resigned on July 6, 1959, and President Sukarno formed a government as prime minister on July 9, 1959. President Sukarno lifted the ban on political party activities on August 1, 1959. Darul Islam rebels killed 118 civilians in West Java on November 26, 1959. Some 600,000 individuals fled their homes in Celebes and 20,000 fled their homes in Sumatra between 1957 and 1959. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance to internally-displaced individuals in Celebes and Sumatra. President Sukarno dissolved the parliament on March 28, 1960. Some 10,000 leftist rebels led by Laurens Saerang surrendered to government troops on February 10, 1961. Sjafruddin Prawiranegara and 34 rebel government officials surrendered to government troops near Tapanuli on August 28, 1961. Mohammed Natsir, a rebel leader in Sumatra, surrendered to government troops in central Sumatra on September 25, 1961. Some 30,000 individuals, including 3,700 government soldiers and 23,500 rebels, were killed during the conflict.
Post-Conflict Phase (September 26, 1961-March 27, 1968): President Sukarno was declared president-for-life on May 18, 1963. Lt. Colonel Untung led a military rebellion against the government of President Achmed Sukarno on September 30, 1965. Government troops led by Lt. General Suharto suppressed the military rebellion on October 11, 1965. The government accused the Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI) headed by Dipa Nusuntara Aidit of leading the military rebellion. President Sukarno, who had been supported by the CPI, dismissed the anti-communist members of his government on February 21, 1966. President Achmed Sukarno was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. General Suharto on March 11, 1966. A military junta took control of the government, and the military junta banned the CPI on March 12-13, 1966. Some 500,000 individuals were killed and some 500,000 individuals were displaced as a result of political violence between September 1961 and March 1966. The People’s Consultative Assembly elected Lt. General Suharto as acting-president on March 12, 1967. Lt. General Suharto was proclaimed president and prime minister by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 27, 1968.
Post-Crisis Phase (March 28, 1968-December 23, 1998): Former President Sukarno died on June 21, 1970. Parliamentary elections were held on July 3, 1971, and the Sekber Golkar won 227 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives. The Muslim Scholar’s Party (Nahdatul Ulama) won 58 seats in the House of Representatives. The Democratic Party of Indonesia (DPI) was established on January 10, 1973. Parliamentary elections were held on May 2, 1977, and the Golkar Party won 232 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives. The Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) won 99 seats in the House of Representatives. On December 20, 1977, the government announced that some 10,000 political prisoners had been released from prison, but Amnesty International (AI) and other non-government organizations suggested that the government held some 100,000 political prisoners. Students demonstrated against the government between January 7 and March 25, 1978, resulting in the arrest of some 800 students by government police. President Suharto was re-elected without opposition to a third term by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 22, 1978, and he was inaugurated on March 23, 1978. Two Muslim leaders were arrested and charged with subversion on April 13, 1978. Members of the Holy War Command (HWC) hijacked an Indonesian airliner and 55 passengers on March 28, 1981. Government troops killed the five hijackers at the Bangkok, Thailand airport on March 30, 1981. Imran Mohammad Zain, leader of the HWC, was arrested on April 20, 1981. Parliamentary elections were held in May 1982, and the Golkar Party won 64 percent of the vote. The DPI won 7.9 percent of the vote. Imran Mohammad Zain was executed on April 13, 1983. The government granted amnesty to some 3,198 political prisoners on August 17, 1983. Anti-government demonstrations occurred in the Tanjung Priok district on September 12, 1984, and some 18 individuals were killed after demonstrators attacked a government police station. Nine CPI members were executed on October 8, 1986. Parliamentary elections were held on April 23, 1987, and the Golkar Party won 299 out of 400 elective seats in the People’s Representation Council. President Suharto was re-elected without opposition to a fifth term by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 10, 1988. Four CPI members were executed on February 16, 1990. Parliamentary elections were held on June 9, 1992, and the Golkar Party won 281 out of 400 elective seats in the People’s Consultative Assembly. President Suharto was re-elected without opposition to a sixth term by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 10, 1993. Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of former President Sukarno, was elected chairperson of the DPI in December 1993. Government police arrested some 240 opponents of the government, and seven individuals were killed in political violence on July 27-28, 1996. On July 30, 1996, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for the recent suppression of political opposition. Parliamentary elections were held on May 29, 1997, and the Golkar Party won 325 out of 425 elective seats in the People’s Consultative Assembly. The DPI won 11 seats in the People’s Consultative Assembly. Some 300 individuals were killed in political violence in 1997. Demonstrations against the government began on February 15, 1998. President Suharto was re-elected without opposition to a seventh term by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 10, 1998. Six individuals were killed during demonstrations and riots in central Java on May 5, 1998, and six students were killed during clashes with government troops in Jakarta on May 12, 1998. Some 10,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Jakarta on May 13, 1998, and some 1,200 individuals were killed during demonstrations and riots in Jakarta on May 13-21, 1998. President Suharto resigned as president, and Vice President Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie was inaugurated as president on May 21, 1998. President Habibie announced forthcoming parliamentary elections on May 25, 1998. Some 5,000 ethnic-Chinese fled as refugees to Malaysia. Muslims and Christians clashed in north Jakarta in November 1998, resulting in the deaths of 13 individuals. Some 2,500 individuals were killed in political violence between March 1968 and December 1998.
Crisis Phase (December 24, 1998-February 12, 2002): Muslims and Christians clashed in Poso district in Central Sulawesi province beginning on December 24, 1998. Muslims and Christians clashed on Ambon island, South Moluku province beginning on January 19, 1999. Some 160 individuals were killed in religious/political violence in the Moluccan Islands in January 1999. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the violence. Muslims and Christians clashed on Haruku island on February 14, 1999, resulting in the deaths of 15 individuals. Nine Muslims were killed in religious/political violence on Ambon island on February 26, 1999. Muslims and Christians clashed on Ambon island on March 10, 1999, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals. The government deployed some 3,000 troops on Ambon island in March 1999. Parliamentary elections were held on June 7, 1999, and the Indonesian Democratic Party (IDP) headed by Megawati Sukamoputri won 154 out of 500 seats in the House of Representatives. The Golkar Party headed by President Habibie won 120 seats in the House of Representatives, and the National Awakening Party (NAP) won 51 seats in the House of Representatives. The European Union (EU) sent 130 personnel to monitor the parliamentary elections from May 1999 to June 1999. The Bangkok-based Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from June 3-8, 1999. The Manila-based National Citizens Movement for Free Elections (NCMFE) sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections. The National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the Carter Center (CC) sent 100 observers from 23 countries headed by Jimmy Carter of the US to jointly observe the parliamentary elections on June 3-9, 1999. Japan sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections. The Association of Asian Election Authorities (AAEA) sent observers from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and Sri Lanka to monitor the parliamentary elections. Abdurrahman Wahid of the NAP was elected president by the People’s Consultative Assembly on October 20, 1999, and Megawati Sukarnoputri was elected vice-president by the People’s Consultative Assembly on October 21, 1999. Government police and supporters of President Wahid clashed in the town of Pasuruan in East Java on May 30, 2001, resulting in the death of one demonstrator. President Wahid was removed from office by the People’s Consultative Assembly on July 23, 2001, and Vice-President Sukarnoputri was sworn in as president on July 23, 2001. Muslim and Christian representatives signed a ten-point peace agreement in Central Sulawesi province on December 20, 1001. Muslim and Christian representatives signed an agreement to end the religious/political violence in the Moluccan Islands on February 12, 2002. Some 6,000 individuals were killed, and some 750,000 individuals were displaced during the crisis.
Post-Crisis Phase (February 13, 2002-present): Seven individuals were killed in a bombing in the town of Ambon on April 2, 2002, and four individuals were killed in political violence in the villages of Porto and Haria on Saparua island on April 11, 2002. Parliamentary elections were held on April 5, 2004. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was elected president with 61 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on September 20, 2004. The EU sent 10 election experts, 64 long-term observers, and 128 short-term observers headed by Glyn Ford of Britain to monitor the presidential elections from February 15, 2004 to October 15, 2004. Japan sent 44 observers to monitor the presidential elections.
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