30. Indonesia (1949-present)

 

Crisis Phase (December 27, 1949-April 25, 1950):  Indonesia formally achieved its independence from the Netherlands as the United States of Indonesia on December 27, 1949.  The governments of Australia, Britain, Burma, Canada, Cuba, India, Pakistan, Philippines, and South Africa provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Indonesian government on December 27, 1949.  The governments of Belgium, Egypt, Portugal, Switzerland, Turkey, and the U.S. provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Indonesia government on December 28, 1949.  The governments of France and South Korea provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Indonesian government on December 30, 1949.  Captain Raymond Westerling, formerly of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, led an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Indonesia government on January 22-23, 1950, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals.

Conflict Phase (April 26, 1950-November 4, 1950):  A group of rebel soldiers on the island of South Moluccas proclaimed the independence of the South Moluccas Republic on April 26, 1950. The United Nations Commission on Indonesia (UNCI) offered its good offices to resolve the dispute between the South Moluccas rebels and the Indonesian government on August 4, 1950, but the offer was rejected by the Indonesian government. Government troops and former Royal Netherlands Indies Army (KNIL) troops clashed in Macassar on August 5, 1950, resulting in the deaths of 22 former KNIL soldiers. The Republic of Indonesia was formally established on August 17, 1950, and Mohammed Natsir formed a government on September 6, 1950. Government troops launched a military offensive against the South Moluccas on September 28, 1950. The South Moluccas Republic appealed to the UNCI, Britain, U.S., and the World Council of Churches (WCC) for assistance on October 5, 1950. The UNCI offered its good offices and appealed to Indonesia to suspend military operations on October 6, 1950, but the offer and appeal were rejected by the Indonesian government on October 10, 1950. The Indonesian government suppressed the South Moluccas rebellion on November 4, 1950. Some 5,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (November 5, 1950-March 8, 1957):  Darul Islam, a Muslim fundamentalist group, rebelled against the Indonesian government in central Java in 1951. Some 25,000 government troops were deployed in Java to suppress the Darul Islam rebellion on March 1, 1951. The government arrested some 2,000 communists in Java and Sumatra between August 5-26, 1951.  Ali Sastroamidjojo of the Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia-PNI) formed a government as prime minister on July 30, 1953. Muslim leaders proclaimed the formation of the Islamic Republic of Indonesia on September 21, 1953.  Legislative elections were held on September 29, 1955, and the Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia-PNI) won 57 out of 257 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations (Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia-PMSMI) also won 57 seats in the People's Representative Council.  Constitutional Assembly elections were held on December 15, 1955, and the Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia-PNI) won 119 out of 514 seats.  The Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations (Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia-PMSMIwon 112 seats in the Constitutional Assembly.  President Achmed Sukarno banned opposition political parties in 1956. President Sukarno survived an attempted assassination on November 30, 1956. President Sukarno declared a state-of-siege in North Sumatra on December 25, 1956 and South Sumatra on December 28, 1956. A military council headed by Lt. Colonel Sumual took control of East Indonesia (Celebes, Moluccas, and Lesser Sunda islands) on March 2, 1957. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between November 1950 and March 1957.

Conflict Phase (March 9, 1957-September 25, 1961):  Left-wing military rebellions broke out against the government in south Sumatra on March 9, 1957 and Borneo on March 12, 1957.  Prime Minister Ali Sastroamidjojo resigned on March 14, 1957, and Djuanda Kartawidjaja formed a government as prime minister. President Sukarno declared a national state-of-emergency on March 14, 1957. The U.S. government rejected an Indonesian government request for military assistance in July 1957.  President Sukarno survived an assassination attempt in Jakarta on November 30, 1957, but five individuals were killed in the attempt.  President Sukarno declared martial law on December 18, 1957. The Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia headed by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara was proclaimed in Padang in central Sumatra on February 15, 1958.  President Sukarno rejected rebel demands on February 21, 1958, and government troops and military aircraft attacked leftist rebel targets near Padang on February 21-22, 1958.  Darul Islam rebels killed eight government soldiers near Bandung on April 3, 1958.  Government troops captured Padang on April 17, 1958 and Bukittinggi on May 4, 1958.  The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance (military aircraft trainers) to the Indonesian government beginning on May 6, 1958.  Government troops suppressed the rebellion in central Sumatra on May 22, 1958.  Government troops launched a military offensive against leftist rebels in East Indonesia on May 9, 1958, and government troops suppressed the rebellion in North Celebes on August 16, 1958. President Sukarno dissolved the Constituent Assembly and restored the 1945 constitution on July 5, 1959.  Prime Minister Kartawidjaja resigned on July 6, 1959, and President Sukarno formed a government as prime minister on July 9, 1959.  President Sukarno lifted the ban on political party activities on August 1, 1959.  Darul Islam rebels killed 118 civilians in West Java on November 26, 1959.  Some 600,000 individuals fled their homes in Celebes and 20,000 fled their homes in Sumatra between 1957 and 1959.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance to internally-displaced individuals in Celebes and Sumatra.  President Sukarno dissolved the People's Representative Council on March 28, 1960.  Some 10,000 leftist rebels led by Laurens Saerang surrendered to government troops on February 10, 1961.  Sjafruddin Prawiranegara and 34 rebel government officials surrendered to government troops near Tapanuli on August 28, 1961.  Mohammed Natsir, a rebel leader in Sumatra, surrendered to government troops in central Sumatra on September 25, 1961.  Some 30,000 individuals, including 3,700 government soldiers and 23,500 rebels, were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 26, 1961-March 27, 1968): President Sukarno was declared president-for-life on May 18, 1963. Lt. Colonel Untung led a military rebellion against the government of President Achmed Sukarno on September 30, 1965. Government troops led by Lt. General Suharto suppressed the military rebellion on October 11, 1965. The government accused the Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI) headed by Dipa Nusuntara Aidit of leading the military rebellion. President Sukarno, who had been supported by the CPI, dismissed the anti-communist members of his government on February 21, 1966.  President Achmed Sukarno was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. General Suharto on March 11, 1966.  A military junta took control of the government, and the military junta banned the CPI on March 12-13, 1966. Some 500,000 individuals were killed and some 500,000 individuals were displaced as a result of political violence between September 1961 and March 1966. The People’s Consultative Assembly elected Lt. General Suharto as acting-president on March 12, 1967. Lt. General Suharto was proclaimed president and prime minister by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 27, 1968.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 28, 1968-February 14, 1998):   Former President Sukarno died on June 21, 1970.  Legislative elections were held on July 3, 1971, and the Joint Secretariat of Functional Groups (Sekber Golkar) won 236 out of 360 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The Muslim Scholar’s Party (Nahdatul Ulama) won 58 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The Democratic Party of Indonesia (DPI) was established on January 10, 1973.  Legislative elections were held on May 2, 1977, and the Golkar Party won 232 out of 360 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The United Development Party (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan-PPP) won 99 seats in the People's Representative Council.  On December 20, 1977, the government announced that some 10,000 political prisoners had been released from prison, but Amnesty International (AI) and other non-government organizations suggested that the government held some 100,000 political prisoners.  Students demonstrated against the government between January 7 and March 25, 1978, resulting in the arrest of some 800 students by government police.  President Suharto was re-elected without opposition to a third term by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 22, 1978, and he was inaugurated on March 23, 1978.  Two Muslim leaders were arrested and charged with subversion on April 13, 1978.  Members of the Holy War Command (HWC) hijacked an Indonesian airliner and 55 passengers on March 28, 1981.  Government troops killed the five hijackers at the Bangkok, Thailand airport on March 30, 1981.  Imran Mohammad Zain, leader of the HWC, was arrested on April 20, 1981.  Legislative elections were held on May 4, 1982, and the Golkar Party won 242 out of 360 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The United Development Party (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan-PPP) won 94 seats in the People's Representative Council.  Imran Mohammad Zain was executed on April 13, 1983.  The government granted amnesty to some 3,198 political prisoners on August 17, 1983.  Anti-government demonstrations occurred in Tanjung Priok District on September 12, 1984, and some 18 individuals were killed after demonstrators attacked a government police station.  Nine CPI members were executed on October 8, 1986.  Legislative elections were held on April 23, 1987, and the Golkar Party won 299 out of 400 elective seats in the People’s Representative Council.  The United Development Party (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan-PPP) won 61 seats in the People's Representative Council.  President Suharto was re-elected without opposition to a fifth term by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 10, 1988.  Four CPI members were executed on February 16, 1990.  Legislative elections were held on June 9, 1992, and the Golkar Party won 282 out of 400 seats in the People’s Representative Council.  The United Development Party (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan-PPP) won 62 seats in the People's Representative Council.  President Suharto was re-elected without opposition to a sixth term by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 10, 1993.  Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of former President Sukarno, was elected chairperson of the DPI in December 1993.  Government police arrested some 240 opponents of the government, and seven individuals were killed in political violence on July 27-28, 1996.  On July 30, 1996, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for the recent suppression of political opposition.  Legislative elections were held on May 29, 1997, and the Golkar Party won 325 out of 425 elective seats in the People’s Representative Council.  The United Development Party (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan-PPP) won 89 seats in the People's Representative Council.  Some 300 individuals were killed in political violence in 1997.

Crisis Phase (February 15, 1998-February 12, 2002):  Demonstrations against the government began on February 15, 1998.  President Suharto was re-elected without opposition to a seventh term by the People’s Consultative Assembly on March 10, 1998, and he was sworn in for a seventh term on March 11, 1998.  The U.S. government agreed to provide $56 million in humanitarian assistance to the Indonesian government on March 24, 1998.  Six individuals were killed during demonstrations and riots in central Java on May 5, 1998.  One individual was killed by government police during demonstrations in Yogyakarta on May 8, 1998.  Six students were killed during clashes with government troops in Jakarta on May 12, 1998.  Some 10,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Jakarta on May 13, 1998, and some 1,200 individuals were killed during demonstrations and riots in Jakarta on May 13-21, 1998.  On May 19, 1998, the U.S. government urged the Indonesian government to begin an open dialogue with its citizens.  On May 20, 1998, the U.S. government called on President Suharto to step down from power.  President Suharto resigned as president, and Vice President Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie was inaugurated as president on May 21, 1998.  President Habibie announced forthcoming legislative elections on May 25, 1998.  A court in Indonesia lifted the ban on the People's Democratic Party (PDP) on August 12, 1998. Government police and army units clashed on the island of Borneo on September 29, 1998, resulting in the deaths of at least three individuals.  Pro-democracy demonstrators and government police clashed in Jakarta on November 13, 1998, resulting in the deaths of 14 demonstrators and one government policeman.  On November 25, 1998, the U.S. government criticized the Indonesian government for the violent clashes between students and government police earlier in the month.  Muslims and Christians clashed in Poso district in Central Sulawesi province beginning on December 24, 1998.  Muslims and Christians clashed on the island of Ambon in South Moluku Province beginning on January 19, 1999, resulting in the deaths of some 160 individuals.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the violence.  Muslims and Christians clashed on Haruku island on February 14, 1999, resulting in the deaths of some 19 individuals.  Nine Muslims were killed in religious/political violence on Ambon island on February 26, 1999.  Muslims and Christians clashed on Ambon island on March 10-11, 1999, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.  The government deployed some 3,000 troops on Ambon island in early March 1999.  At least 60 individuals were killed in communal violence in West Kalimantan on the island of Borneo on March 16-20, 1999.  Some 30 individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims in the Moluccan islands on March 31-April 3, 1999.  At least seven individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims on the island of Ambon on May 15, 1999.  Legislative elections were held on June 7, 1999, and the Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan, PDI–P) headed by Megawati Sukamoputri won 153 out of 500 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The Golkar Party headed by President Habibie won 120 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The European Union (EU) sent 130 personnel to monitor the legislative elections from May 1999 to June 1999.  The Bangkok-based Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections from June 3-8, 1999.  The Manila-based National Citizens Movement for Free Elections (NCMFE) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the Carter Center (CC) sent 100 observers from 23 countries headed by Jimmy Carter of the U.S. to jointly monitor the legislative elections on June 3-9, 1999.  Japan sent observers to monitor the legislative elections. The Association of Asian Election Authorities (AAEA) sent observers from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and Sri Lanka to monitor the legislative elections.  Some 40 individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims on the island of Ambon on August 9-12, 1999.  Abdurrahman Wahid of the NAP was elected president by the People’s Consultative Assembly on October 20, 1999, and Megawati Sukarnoputri was elected vice-president by the People’s Consultative Assembly on October 21, 1999.  At least 31 individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims in the Moluccan islands on December 3-5, 1999.  Some 550 individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims in the Moluccan islands (Maluku and North Maluku provinces) from December 26, 1999 to January 3, 2000.  Some 12,000 individuals were displaced in the violence.  On January 21, 2000, the U.S. government announced that it would increase foreign assistance to the Indonesian government to $175 million.  At least 30 individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims in the Moluccan islands on March 9-10, 2000.  Government police killed two students in Medan on May 1, 2000.  Some 35 individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims in the town of Ambon in the Moluccan islands on May 17, 2000.  Muslim militants attacked the mostly Christian village of Mamuya in the Moluccan islands on May 25-26, 2000, resulting in the deaths of some 26 villagers and eight militants.  Some 114 individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslim on the island of Halmahera in the Moluccan islands on June 19, 2000.  Muslim militants attacked the mostly Christian village of Waai in the Moluccan islands on July 6-7, 2000, resulting in the deaths of at least 22 individuals.  Muslim militants attacked and killed at least five Christians in the city of Ambon on September 26, 2000.  More than 400 individuals, mostly ethnic Madurese, were killed in ethnic violence in Kalimantan Province on the island of Borneo on February 18-28, 2001.  Some 40,000 individuals were displaced during the violence in Kalimantan Province.  Three Christians from the island of Sulawesi were sentenced to death for masterminding a series of attacks on the Muslim community in Poso District in May 2000.  Government police and supporters of President Wahid clashed in the town of Pasuruan in East Java on May 30, 2001, resulting in the death of one demonstrator.  President Abdurrahman Wahid declared a state of emergency on July 22, 2001, but he was removed from office by the People’s Consultative Assembly on July 23, 2001.  Vice-President Megawati Sukarnoputri was sworn in as president on July 23, 2001.  At least six individuals were killed in clashes between government police and Christians in Sulawesi Province on October 20-21, 2001.  Christian and Muslim representatives signed a ten-point peace agreement in Sulawesi Province on December 20, 2001.  Christian and Muslim representatives signed an agreement to end the religious violence in the Moluccan Islands on February 12, 2002.  More than 6,000 individuals were killed, and some 750,000 individuals were displaced during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 13, 2002-present):  The government of China agreed to provide $400 million in loans to the Indonesian government on March 24, 2002.  Seven individuals were killed in a bombing in the town of Ambon on April 2, 2002, and four individuals were killed in political violence in the villages of Porto and Haria on Saparua island on April 11, 2002.  At least twelve individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims in the Moluccan islands on April 28, 2002.  Four individuals were killed in a bomb explosion on the island of Sulawesi on June 6, 2002.  Five individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims on the island of Sulawesi on August 13, 2002.  Three individuals were killed in a bombing in Ambon in the Moluccan islands on September 5, 2002.  Government troops clashed with government police on the island of Sumatra on September 30, 2002, resulting in the deaths of four government policemen.  Some 202 individuals were killed in a bombing by members of the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) in the district of Kuta on the island of Bali on October 12, 2002.  The Bali bombings were condemned by the governments of Australia, Britain, China, France, Germany, New Zealand, Russia, Vietnam, and the U.S.  Javier Solana, European Union (EU) High Representative for the Common Foreign & Security Policy (CFSP), and Pope John Paul II also condemned the Bali bombings.  Three individuals were killed in bombings in Makassar on the island of Sulawesi on December 6, 2002.  Some 12 individuals were killed in the bombing of a Marriott Hotel in Jakarta by members of the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) on August 5, 2003.  At least eight Christians were killed by Jemaah Islamiah (JI) militants near the town of Poso in Sulawesi Province on October 12, 2003.  Four individuals were killed in a bombing in the town of Palopo on the island of Sulawesi on January 10, 2004.  Legislative elections were held on April 5, 2004, and the Party of the Functional Groups (Partai Golongan Karya - Golkar Party) won 128 out of 550 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan - PDI-P) won 109 seats in the People's Representative Council.  Muslim militants attacked a Christian church in Palu in Sulawesi Province on July 18, 2004, resulting in the death of one individual.  Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of the PDI-P was elected president with 61 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on September 20, 2004.  The European Union (EU) sent 10 election experts, 64 long-term observers, and 128 short-term observers headed by Glyn Ford of Britain to monitor the presidential elections from February 15, 2004 to October 15, 2004.  Japan sent 44 observers to monitor the presidential elections.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 60 observers, including ten long-term observers, from eight countries to monitor the first round of presidential elections from May 3 to July 7, 2004, and sent 57 observers from 13 countries to monitor the second round of presidential elections from September 20 to September 22, 2004.  Some 22 individuals were killed in bombings by Muslim militants in the town of Tentena in Sulawesi Province on May 28, 2005.  Some 23 individuals, including three suicide bombers, were killed in a series of bombings on the island of Bali on October 1, 2005.  Javier Solana, European Union (EU) High Representative for the Common Foreign & Security Policy (CFSP), condemned the Bali bombings on October 2, 2005.  Muslim militants killed three Christian school girls near Poso in Sulawesi Province on October 29, 2005.  At least eight individuals were killed in a bombing in the town of Palu in Sulawesi Province on December 31, 2005.  On September 22, 2006, three Christian militants were executed by the government on the island of Sulawesi.  Government police clashed with Muslim militants in Poso on January 22, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals.  On November 9, 2008, three individuals were executed by the government for their involvement in the 2002 Bali bombings.  Legislative elections were held on April 9, 2009, and the Democratic Party (Partai Demokrasi - PD) won 148 out of 560 seats in the People's Representative Council.  The Party of the Functional Groups (Partai Golongan Karya - Golkar Party) won 106 seats in the People's Representative Council.  President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of the Democratic Party (Partai Demokrat - PD) was re-elected on July 8, 2009, and he was sworn in for a second five-year term on October 20, 2009.  The Carter Center (CC) sent six long-term observers to monitor the legislative elections from March 21 to May 31, 2009.  The Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent 20 short-term observers to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 3 to April 9, 2009.  Nine individuals, including two suicide bombers, were killed in hotel bombings in Jakarta on July 17, 2009.  The suicide bombings were condemned by the governments of Britain, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.  The European Union (EU) also condemned the suicide bombings.  Government police killed four Muslim militants, including Noordin Mohamed Top, near the city of Solo in central Java September 17, 2009.  Government police killed two Muslim militants, Saifuddin Zuhri bin Djaelani and Mohamad Syahrir, in the town of Ciputat on October 9, 2009.  Government police arrested 14 Muslim militants between February 22 and March 3, 2010, and the militants were charged with plotting terrorist attacks.  Government security forces killed three suspected Muslim militants near Jakarta on March 9, 2010.  Abu Bakar Ba'asyir, a radical Muslim cleric, was arrested by government police on terror charges on August 9, 2010.  Muslim militants attacked a police station in Hamparan Perak in northern Sumatra on September 22, 2010, resulting in the deaths of three government policemen.  A mosque in Cirebon, West Java was attacked by a suicide bomber on April 15, 2011, resulting in injuries to 28 individuals and the death of the suicide bomber.  On June 16, 2011, Abu Bakar Ba'asyir, a radical Muslim cleric, was sentenced to 15 years in prison for providing support for Muslim militants.  Umar Patek, a mastermind of the 2002 Bali bombings, was extradited from Pakistan to Indonesia on August 11, 2011.  Eight individuals were killed in violence between Christians and Muslims in the city of Ambon in the Moluccan islands on September 11-12, 2011.  At least two individuals were killed in a suicide bombing of a Christian church in the city of Solo in Central Java on September 25, 2011.  On March 5m 2012, Pepi Fernando, a Muslim militant, was sentenced to 18 years in prison by the West Jakarta District Court for his involvement terrorist attacks.  On October 27, 2012, government police arrested eleven individuals, reportedly members of the Sunni Movement for Indonesian Society, for plotting terrorist attacks.  At least ten individuals were killed in ethnic violence in Lampung Province on the island of Sumatra on October 27-30, 2012.  Government police killed one suspected Muslim militant in Poso District on the island of Sulawesi on November 2-3, 2012.

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Selected Bibliography

Feith, Herbert and Daniel S. Lev. 1963. "The End of the Indonesian Rebellion." Pacific Affairs 36 (Spring): 32-46.

Kahin, George McTurnan. 1952. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Ray, J. K. 1967. Transfer of Power in Indonesia, 1942-1949. Bombay, India: Manaktalas.