2. China (1900-present)

 

Conflict Phase (May 11, 1900-September 7, 1901): The Boxer Movement rebelled against the Manchu government beginning on May 11, 1900. Boxer rebels killed 68 Chinese Christians in the village of Gaoluo (Kaolo) in Chihli province in May 1900. Government troops commanded by Colonel Yang Futong and Boxer rebels clashed near Gaoluo on May 15-16, 1900, resulting in the deaths of some 60 rebels. Colonel Yang Futong was killed by Boxer rebels in Shiting on May 22, 1900. Government troops commanded by General Nieh Shih-ch’eng and Boxer rebels clashed near Langfang on June 4, 1900, resulting in the deaths of 480 rebels. Twenty-four Allied naval ships were deployed near Taku on June 4, 1900.

Some 900 British troops, 200 German troops, 200 Russian troops, 200 French troops, 200 Japanese troops, 120 US troops, and 100 Italian troops commanded by Vice-Admiral E. H. Seymour of Britain intervened against the Boxer rebels beginning on June 10, 1900. Boxer rebels entered Peking on June 13, 1900. Allied troops commanded by Vice-Admiral Seymour clashed with Boxer rebels near Langfang on June 11, 1900, resulting in the deaths of some 50 rebels. Allied naval ships attacked Chinese forts near Tientsin on June 17, 1900, and Allied troops clashed with government troops commanded by General Nieh Shih-ch’eng near Tientsin on June 18, 1900. Government troops and Boxer rebels laid siege to some 3,700 individuals in the foreign legations in Peking beginning on June 20, 1900, and the Manchu government “declared war” against the Allied countries on June 21, 1900. Boxers killed some 230 foreign civilians in Shansi province between June 24 and July 24, 1900. Allied troops captured Tienstin on July 13-14, 1900. The Allied Expeditionary Force (AEF), which consisted of 10,000 Japanese troops, 4,800 Russian troops, 3,000 British troops, 2,100 US troops, 800 French troops, 100 German troops, 58 Austrian-Hungarian troops, and 53 Italian troops, relieved the foreign legations and captured Peking on August 14-28, 1900. Seventy-four individuals in the foreign legations were killed during the 55-day siege. Some 5,000 Chinese Christians and 180 foreign civilians were killed in Shanxi and Inner Mongolia provinces during the rebellion, and some 1,500 Chinese Christians were killed in Manchuria during the rebellion. The Manchu government fled to Sian (Xi’an) on August 15, 1900. Some 19,000 German troops commanded by Field Marshall Alfred von Waldersee carried out several punitive missions against the Chinese in Zhili and Shanxi provinces between December 12, 1900 and April 30, 1901. The government and Allied countries signed the Boxer Protocol in Peking on September 7, 1901, which provided for the Chinese payment of an indemnity to the Allied countries. Some 35,000 individuals, including 32,000 Chinese Christians, 2,000 Chinese soldiers and Boxers, 622 Japanese soldiers, 302 Russian soldiers, 34 British soldiers, 24 French soldiers, and 21 US soldiers, were killed during the conflict. Some 100,000 Chinese were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 8, 1901-October 9, 1911): Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi and the Manchu government returned on Peking on January 7, 1902. Sun Yat-sen and other Chinese nationalists established the T’ung Meng Hui (“United League of China”) in opposition to the Manchu dynasty in August 1905. Government troops suppressed a rebellion by the T’ung Meng Hui in Kwangtung on May 27, 1907. Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi and Emperor Kuang Hsu died on November 14-15, 1908, and Pu Yi became emperor (Prince Ch’un was appointed as regent). Government troops suppressed a rebellion by members of the T’ung Meng Hui led by Huang Hsing in Canton on April 27-28, 1911, resulting in the deaths of 86 rebels. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between September 1901 and October 1911.

Conflict Phase (October 10, 1911-December 3, 1911): Chinese nationalists rebelled against the Manchu government in Wuchang (Wuhan) on October 10, 1911, and captured Hanyang on October 11, 1911. Chinese nationalists captured Hankou on October 12, 1911, but government troops recaptured Hankou on November 2, 1911. Chinese nationalists established a provisional government in Shanghai on November 3, 1911. Prince Chi’ing resigned as prime minister, and General Yuan Shih-kai was requested to form a government as prime minister on November 1, 1911. General Yuan Shih-kai was elected as prime minister by the National Assembly on November 8, 1911. Chinese nationalists led by Huang Hsing captured Nanking (Nanjing) from government troops on December 2-3, 1911. Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 4, 1911-July 9, 1913): Sun Yat-sen was elected provisional president of the United Provinces of China by a provisional assembly in Nanking on December 29, 1911, and he was sworn in as provisional president on January 1, 1912. Huang Hsing was appointed as minister of war. General Yuan Shih-kai survived an attempted assassination on January 16, 1912 (four individuals were executed for their involvement in the attempted assassination). Empress Dowager Lung Yu and Emperor Pu Yi abdicated the throne on February 12, 1912, and General Yuan Shih-kai was elected provisional president of the Republic of China by the National Assembly on February 15, 1912. Sun Yat-sen resigned as provisional president, and General Yuan Shih-kai was inaugurated as president on March 10, 1912. The National Assembly approved a provisional constitution on March 10, 1912. Prime Minister T’ang Shao-Yi and four Kuomintang members of the cabinet resigned on June 15, 1912, and Lu Cheng-Hsiang formed a government as prime minister. Sun Yat-sen established the National People’s Party (Kuomintang) in opposition to the government of President Yuan Shih-kai in Peking in September 1912. Parliamentary elections were held in December 1912 and January 1913, and the Kuomintang won 269 out of 586 seats in the National Assembly. Sung Ch’iao-jen (Song Jiaoren), leader of the Kuomintang in the National Assembly, was assassinated in Shanghai on March 21, 1913. The National Assembly convened in Peking on April 8, 1913, and Yuan Shih-kai was elected president for a four-year term by the National Assembly on April 9, 1913. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government in Peking on May 2, 1913.

Conflict Phase (July 10, 1913-September 15, 1913): Members of the Kuomintang rebelled against the government in Kiangsi province beginning on July 10, 1913, but government troops suppressed the rebellion on September 15, 1913. Some 10,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 16, 1913-June 30, 1920): Yuan Shih-kai was elected to a five-year term by the National Assembly in Peking on October 7, 1913, and he was inaugurated as president on October 10, 1913. Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Yuan Shih-kai on October 10, 1913. President Yuan Shih-kai purge the National Assembly of member of the Kuomintang on November 4, 1913, and formally dissolved the Kuomintang on January 10, 1914. President Yuan Shih-kai dissolved the National Assembly on January 10, 1914, and dissolved the provincial assemblies on March 10, 1914. Some 15,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1913 and 1914. General T’ang Chi-yao led a rebellion against the government in Yunnan province beginning on December 25, 1915. Rebel troops captured Hsufu in Szechwan province on January 20, 1916. General Lu Jung-ting led a rebellion against the government in Kwangsi province beginning on March 15, 1916. President Yuan Shih-kai appointed Hsu Shih-ch’ang as prime minister on March 22, 1916. President Yuan Shih-kai died on June 6, 1916, and he was succeeded by Vice-President Li Yuan-hung on June 7, 1916. President Li Yuan-hung restored the 1913 constitution. Tuan Chi-jui formed a government as prime minister in Peking on August 1, 1916. President Li Yuan-hung dismissed Prime Minister Tuan Chi-jui on May 23, 1917, and dissolved the parliament on June 13, 1917. The Manchu Dynasty was restored on July 1, 1917, but was overthrown by former Prime Minister Tuan Chi-jui on July 12, 1917. Tuan Chi-jui formed a government as prime minister on July 13, 1917. President Li Yuan-hung resigned in August 1917, and Feng Kuo-chang was appointed as provisional president in Peking. Sun Yat-sen formed a rival government headed by Sun Wen in Canton on September 10, 1917. The National Assembly convened in Peking on August 12, 1918. Hsu Shih-chang was elected president by the National Assembly in Peking on September 4, 1918, and he was inaugurated as president on October 10, 1918. Prime Minister Tuan Ch’i-jui resigned on October 10, 1918. Admiral Sa Chen-ping was appointed as provisional prime minister on May 15, 1920. Some 3,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1917 and 1918. Some 18,000 individuals were killed in political violence between September 1913 and June 1920.

Conflict Phase (July 1, 1920-December 31, 1925): Chinese warlords in northern China fought a civil war for control of the central government in Peking between July 1920 and December 1925. Chin Yun-peng formed a government as prime minister in Peking on August 11, 1920. Chen Chiung-ming, leader of the Kuomintang faction in South Fukien, led a rebellion against the Kuomintang faction in Canton beginning in September 1920. Sun Yat-sen was elected president by a Kuomintang-dominated parliament in Canton on April 7, 1921, and he was sworn in as president on May 5, 1921. Prime Minister Chin Yun-peng resigned on December 17, 1921, and Liang Shih-yi formed a government as prime minister in Peking on December 24, 1921. The Communist Party of China (CPC) was established by Mao Tse-tung and Ch’en Tu-hsiu in Shanghai on July 20, 1921. Prime Minister Liang Shih-yi fled to Tientsin on January 28, 1922. President Hsu Shih-chang resigned on June 1, 1922, and Li Yuan-hung was elected president in Peking on June 2, 1922. W. W. Yen formed a government as prime minister in Peking on June 13, 1922. Kuomintang troops led by Chen Chiung-ming defeated Kuomintang troops loyal to Sun Yat-sen near Canton on June 16-17, 1922. Prime Minister W. W. Yen resigned on July 30, 1922, and Wang Chung-hui was appointed as interim prime minister in Peking on July 31, 1922. President Sun Yat-sen fled Canton aboard a British naval ship to Shanghai on August 9-14, 1922. Kuomintang troops loyal to President Sun Yat-sen captured Foochow on October 13, 1922 and Wuchow on December 18, 1922. Wang Chen-ming was appointed as interim prime minister in Peking on December 12, 1922, and Chang Shao-tseng formed a government as prime minister in Peking on December 18, 1922. Kuomintang troops loyal to President Sun Yat-sen recaptured Canton on January 15, 1923, and President Sun Yat-sen formed a government in Canton on February 21, 1923. The Soviet Union agreed to provide military assistance to the Kuomintang government in Canton on January 27, 1923 (Soviet arms arrived in Canton beginning on October 7, 1924). Prime Minister Chang Shao-tseng resigned on June 5, 1923, and President Li Yuan-hung resigned on June 14, 1923. Tsao Kun was elected president by the parliament in Peking on October 5, 1923, and a new constitution went into effect on October 10, 1923. Kuomintang troops led by Chen Chiung-ming clashed with Kuomingtan troops loyal to President Sun Yat-sen near Canton beginning in November 1923. President Sun Yat-sen threatened to seize customs revenues in Canton on December 1, 1923, and Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Portugal, and the US deployed naval ships near Canton between December 23, 1923 and April 28, 1924 (British, French, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, and US troops had been deployed to guard the customs building in Canton on December 6, 1923). Sun Pao-chi formed a government as prime minister in Peking on January 13, 1924. The Kuomintang convened a national congress headed by President Sun Yat-sen in Canton beginning on January 21, 1924. Prime Minister Sun Pao-chi resigned on July 2, 1924, and Wellington Koo was appointed as interim prime minister in Peking on July 3, 1924. W. W. Yen formed a government as prime minister in Peking on September 12, 1924. Prime Minister W. W. Yen resigned on October 25, 1924, and Huang Fu formed a government as prime minister in Peking on October 31, 1924. President Tsao Kun resigned on November 2, 1924, and Tuan Chi-jui was appointed as provisional president in Peking on November 24, 1924. Marshall Tuan Chi-jui formed a provisional government as prime minister in Peking on November 25, 1924. Kuomintang troops led by Chen Chiung-ming attacked Canton on February 5, 1925. President Sun Yat-sen died on March 12, 1925. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Shanghai and other cities between May 30 and June 23, 1925, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals. Britain deployed three naval ships in the region on May 31, 1925. The Kuomintang established a 16-member government in Canton on July 1, 1925. On September 15, 1925, Britain, Japan, and the US established a three-member commission of inquiry to investigate the killing of nine Chinese by police in Shanghai on May 30, 1925. The commission of inquiry issued a report on December 23, 1925. General Feng Yu-hsiang’s troops occupied Peking on November 26, 1925 and Tientsin on December 24, 1925. Hsu Shi-ying formed a government as prime minister in Peking on December 26, 1925. Some 25,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 1, 1926-July 14, 1926): Government police fired on student demonstrators in Peking on March 18, 1926, resulting in the deaths of some 40 individuals. General Chiang Kai-shek took control of the Kuomintang government in Canton between March 20 and April 25, 1926. President Tuan Chi-jui was overthrown on April 10, 1926, and fled to Tientsin on April 20, 1926. W. W. Yen formed a government as prime minister in Peking on May 13, 1926, but he resigned on June 23, 1926. Tu Hsi-kuei formed a government as prime minister in Peking on June 24, 1926.  Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between January 1926 and July 1926.

Conflict Phase (July 15, 1926-June 8, 1928): Some 265,000 Kuomintang troops commanded by General Chiang Kai-shek launched a military offensive against the government in Peking beginning on July 15, 1926. Kuomintang troops and government troops commanded by warlord Sun Ch’uan-fang clashed near Kiangsi between September 4 and November 9, 1926. Kuomintang troops captured Hankow on September 6, 1926. Wellington Koo was appointed as interim prime minister in Peking on October 2, 1926. Kuomintang troops captured Wuchang on October 10, 1926, Nan-chang on November 9, 1926, Nanking on March 24, 1927, and Shanghai on March 22, 1927. Kuomintang troops killed some 5,000 communists and trade union leaders in Shanghai on April 11-12, 1927 (some 31,000 communists were killed by Kuomintang troops in Shanghai, Canton, and Hunan in the following weeks). General Chiang Kai-shek and the right-wing faction of the Kuomintang formed a government in Nanking on April 18, 1927 (Wang Ching-wei had formed a left-wing Kuomintang government). Communists rebelled against the Kuomintang government in Nanking on August 1-2, 1927. Some 60,000 Chinese troops commanded by warlord Sun Ch’ung-fang launched a counter-military offensive against Kuomintang troops beginning in August 1927, but the warlord troops were defeated by Kuomintang troops commanded by General Li Tsung-jen near Lungtan in September 1927. Some 10,000 warlord troops and 5,000 Kuomintang troops were killed during the battle. Some 50,000 Kuomintang troops suppressed a communist rebellion in Canton on December 11-15, 1927, resulting in the deaths of some 15,000 soldiers and civilians. Kuomintang troops commanded by General Chiang Kai-shek launched a military offensive against the Peking government beginning on April 1, 1928, and Kuomintang troops entered Peking on June 8, 1928. Some 50,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (June 9, 1928-September 30, 1930): The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Kuomintang government on July 25, 1928, and Germany provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Kuomintang government on August 17, 1928. The Kuomintang promulgated a new constitution (Organic Law) on October 4, 1928, which provided for the establishment of five branches of government (yuans). General Chiang Kai-shek was inaugurated as chairman of the State Council (President of the Republic) in Nanking on October 10, 1928. Britain provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of General Chiang Kai-shek on December 20, 1928, and France provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of General Chiang Kai-shek on December 22, 1928. Kuomintang troops and warlord troops clashed in 1929 and 1930. Some 75,000 individuals were killed in political violence between June 1928 and September 1930.

Conflict Phase (October 1, 1930-December 31, 1936): Some 100,000 Kuomintang troops commanded by General Chang Hui-tsan launched an unsuccessful military offensive against communist troops from October 1930 to January 1931. Some 150,000 Kuomintang troops commanded by General Ho Ying-chin launched a military offensive against communist troops in May 1931. Some 300,000 Kuomintang troops commanded by General Chiang Kai-shek launched a military offensive against communist troops from July to September 1931. Kuomintang troops commanded by General Chiang Kai-shek launched a military offensive against communist troops from June 1932 to March 1933. Kuomintang troops commanded by General Chiang Kai-shek launched a military offensive against communist troops from October 1933 to October 1934. Mao Tse-tung led some 90,000 communists on the Long March to northwest China from October 16, 1934 to October 30, 1935. Some 45,000 communists died during the 6,200 miles journey to the Guizhiu province. The Kuomintang government and communists agreed to suspend military hostilities in December 1936. Some 500,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 1, 1937-November 14, 1945): General Chiang Kai-shek was elected president by the Central Executive Committee on September 13 1943.  President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the US appointed Brig. Gen. Patrick Hurley as special representative on August 18, 1944.  Soviet troops occupied Manchuria beginning in August 1945.  The US provided military assistance (sea and airlift operations commanded by General Albert Wedemeyer) from August to October 1945, during which 500,000 Chinese nationalist troops were transported to central and northern China.  Special representative Patrick Hurley of the US mediated negotiations between Mao Tse-tung and General Chiang Kai-shek in Chungking between August 28 and September 22, 1945.  Some 53,000 US troops were deployed in support of the nationalists in northern China on September 30, 1945.

Conflict Phase (November 15, 1945-January 14, 1946): Kuomintang troops began a military offensive against Chinese communist troops in southwest Manchuria on November 15, 1945.  Patrick Hurley resigned as special representative to China on November 26, 1945.  President Harry Truman of the US appointed General George Marshall as special representative to China on November 27, 1945.  Chinese communist troops launched a military offensive in the Shantung province on November 30, 1945.  The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Kuomintang government on December 15, 1945. General Marshall mediated a ceasefire between the Kuomintang and communists on January 10, 1946, and the ceasefire went into effect on January 14, 1946. Some 200,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 15, 1946-March 9, 1946): General Marshall of the US mediated an agreement between the parties on February 25, 1946, which provided for the creation of a unified Chinese army. Soviet troops withdrew from Manchuria beginning on March 1, 1946.

Conflict Phase (March 10, 1946-December 9, 1949): Communist rebels and Kuomintang troops resumed military hostilities on March 10, 1946. Kuomintang troops defeated communist troops in Mukden on March 15, 1946. Chinese communist troops defeated Kuomintang troops in Szeping on March 17, 1946. The US provided military assistance to the Kuomintang government following the resumption of military hostilities in Manchuria. Communist troops captured Ch’angchun on April 18, 1946. Kuomintang troops defeated communist troops in Szeping (Ssup’ingchieh) on May 20, 1946. General Marshall mediated a ceasefire agreement between Kuomintang and communist troops in Manchuria on June 7, 1946, but military hostilities were resumed on June 30, 1946. The US imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Kuomintang government on July 29, 1946. President Chiang Kai-shek was re-elected president by the parliament on October 10, 1946. The National Assembly approved a new constitution in Nanking on December 25, 1946.  US troops were withdrawn from northern China in January 1947. The US ended its mediation efforts in China on January 29, 1947. Prime Minister T. V. Soong resigned on March 1, 1947. General Chang Chun formed a Kuomintang government as prime minister on April 23, 1947. The US lifted military sanctions against the Kuomintang government on May 26, 1947. President Harry Truman sent Lt. General Albert Wedemeyer on a fact-finding mission to China from July 22 to August 24, 1947, and General Wedemeyer recommended US economic assistance in support of the Kuomintang government. Parliamentary elections were held November 21-23, 1947. A new constitution went into effect on December 25, 1947. The US provided economic assistance in support of the Kuomintang government beginning on February 18, 1948. President Chiang Kai-shek was re-elected president by the National Assembly on April 19, 1948. Wong Wen-hao was elected prime minister by the parliament on May 24, 1948. Chinese communist troops captured Tsinan in Shantung province on September 23, 1948. Communist troops took control of Manchuria on November 1, 1948. Prime Minister Wong Wen-hao resigned on November 26, 1948, and Sun Fo was elected prime minister by the parliament on November 27, 1948. President Chiang Kai-shek resigned on January 20, 1949, and Vice-President Li Tsung-jen assumed the presidency on January 21, 1949. Peking was captured by communist troops on January 22-23, 1949. Prime Minister Sun Fo resigned on March 5, 1949, and General Ho Ying-chin was elected prime minister by the parliament on March 12, 1949. Nanking was occupied by communist troops on April 23, 1949, and Shanghai was captured by communist troops on May 27, 1949. Prime Minister Ho Ying-chin resigned on May 30, 1949, and Marshal Yen Hsi-shan was elected prime minister by the parliament on June 3, 1949. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) was proclaimed by Mao Tse-tung on October 1, 1949. The Soviet Union provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the communist government on October 2, 1949. Communist troops captured Canton on October 15, 1949 and Chungking on November 30, 1949. The Kuomintang government withdrew to the island of Formosa (Taiwan) on December 7, 1949, and proclaimed the Republic of China on Taiwan on December 8, 1949. Some one million individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 10, 1949-September 28, 1954): The communist government approved the Agrarian Reform Law on June 28, 1950, which provided for the redistribution of land to the peasants. Elections were held for the National People’s Congress were held in 1953. The National People’s Congress approved a new constitution on September 28, 1954. Some two million individuals were killed in political violence between December 1949 and September 1954.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 29, 1954-April 17, 1966):

Crisis Phase (April 18, 1966-April 24, 1969): Mao Zedong, chairman of the Communist Party of China (CPC), initiated the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution on April 18, 1966, and Prime Minister Chou En-lai officially announced the beginning of the cultural revolution on April 30, 1966. Universities throughout the country were closed on June 13, 1966. Chairman Mao returned to Beijing on July 18, 1966. Chairman Mao promoted Marshall Lin Piao, head of the Military Affairs Committee of the CPC, to be vice-chairman of the CPC on August 1, 1966. Student supporters of Chairman Mao, known as Red Guard, held demonstrations in Beijing between August 18 and November 26, 1966. Red Guards destroyed some 3,000 monasteries and temples in Tibet beginning on August 25, 1966. Red Guards seized the CPC headquarters in Shanghai on September 4, 1966. Supporters of Chairman Mao began a purge of the CPC leadership in November 1966. Chairman Mao appointed Chen Pota as chairman of the Central Cultural Revolutionary Committee (CCRC) on November 22, 1966. Supporters of Chairman Mao seized control of Lhasa, Tibet on February 3, 1967, but Chinese troops captured the city on February 9, 1967. Some 120 individuals were killed during conflict between Chinese troops and supporters of Chairman Mao in Lhasa on February 11-March 3, 1967. General Chen Tsai-tao seized control of Wuhan, Hupeh province in March 1967. Some 350 individuals were killed during conflict between soldiers and civilians in Wuhan from April 24 to July 15, 1967. Supporters of Chairman Mao seized control of Wuhan on August 1, 1967, resulting in the deaths of 470 individuals. Chairman Mao appointed his wife, Jiang Qing (Chiang Ching), as vice-chairman of the CCRC. President Liu Shao-chi was expelled from the CPC and removed as president on October 31, 1968. Chairman Mao and the ninth congress of the CPC formally ended the Cultural Revolution on April 24, 1969. Some 400,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 25, 1969-May 19, 1989): Marshal Lin Biao died in a plane crash on September 12-13, 1971 following a military rebellion on September 11, 1971. Prime Minister Zhou Enlai died on January 8, 1976, and Vice Premier Hua Guofeng was named interim prime minister. Hua Guofeng was confirmed as prime minister on April 17, 1976. Chairman Mao Zedong died on September 9, 1976. Jiang Qing, the widow of Chairman Mao Zedong, and three other hardline communists, were arrested on October 6, 1976. Prime Minister Hua Guofeng was designated as chairman of the CPC on October 7, 1976.  Student demonstrations in support of political reforms occurred in Shanghai, Beijing, and other cities beginning on December 16, 1986. Hu Yaobang, chairman of the Communist Party of China (CPC), was forced to resign on January 16, 1987 as a result of his support for political reforms. Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang was designated as general-secretary of the CPC on November 24, 1987, and Li Peng replaced Zhao Ziyang as prime minister. Hu Yaobang died on April 15, 1989. Student demonstrations in support of political reform occurred in Beijing and Shanghai beginning on April 16, 1989. Chinese students gathered in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, and called for the resignation of Deng Xiaoping and other government leaders. Some 1 million individuals demonstrated in Tiananmen Square on May 18, 1989.

Crisis Phase (May 20, 1989-January 11, 1990): The government declared martial law on May 20, 1989, but more than one million individuals demonstrated in support of the pro-democracy movement.  Government soldiers violently suppressed the student demonstrations in Tiananmen Square in Beijing on June 3-5, 1989, resulting in the deaths of some 2,000 individuals.  President George Bush of the US imposed military sanctions against China on June 5, 1989.  The European Community (EC) Council condemned the government’s use of military force against the demonstrators in Beijing and other cities.  General-Secretary Zhao Ziyang was dismissed on June 24, 1989, and he was replaced by Jiang Zemin.  The EC imposed military sanctions (arms sales ban) against China on June 27, 1989.  Jiang Zemin replaced Deng Xiaoping as chair of the Central Military Commission (CMC) on November 9, 1989.  The government lifted martial law on January 11, 1990.  Some 4,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 12, 1990-present): Jiang Zemin replaced Yang Shangkun as president of the PRC in March 1993.  The government arrested Wang Dan, a student leader of the 1989 pro-democracy demonstrations, in May 1995.  The government convicted and sentenced dissident Wei Jingsheng to 14 years imprisonment for subversion in December 1995.  On December 14, 1995, Britain, Germany, and the US condemned the government for the trial and imprisonment of Wei Jingsheng.  The government charged Wang Dan with subversion on October 7, 1996.  The government convicted and sentenced Wang Dan to eleven years in prison on October 30, 1996.  On October 30, 1996, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for the trial and sentencing of Wang Dan.  Deng Xiaoping died on February 19, 1997, and he was succeeded as paramount leader of China by President Jiang Zemin.  Wang Dan was released from prison and flown to the US on April 19, 1998.  Hu Jintao succeeded Jiang Zemin as president on March 15, 2003.

[Sources: Banks and Muller, 1998, 182-189; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 47; Botjer 1979; Brecher and Wilkenfeld, 1997, 382-383; Brogan, 1992, 169-182; Butterworth, 1976, 44-46; Christopher 1950; Clodfelter, 1992,643-644, 653-655, 655-658, 1145-1150, 1154-1155, 1157; Clubb 1978; Degenhardt, 1988, 55-58; Fairbank, 1986, 125-140; Fleming 1959; Foreign Relations of the US (FRUS), 1926 (vol.1), 591-743, 1927 (vol. 2), 1-44, 1928 (vol. 2), 119-199; Gray, 1990, 126-151; Jessup, 1998, 124-127; Keesing’s Record of World Events, June 29-July 6, 1946, November 30-December 7, 1946, May 17-24, 1947, February 14-21, 1948, November 13-20, 1948, January 22-29, 1949, April 30-May 7, 1949, August 27-September 3, 1949, January 7-14, 1950, August 27-September 3, 1966, April 22-29, 1967, August 5-12, 1967, October 5-12, 1968, December 7-14, 1968, May 31-June 7, 1969, July 3-10, 1971, August 26-September 2, 1972, December 16-23, 1972, February 27, 1976, July 2, 1976; Langer, 1972, 909-916, 1106-1111, 1338-1343; Liu 1956; Pott, 1925, 492-502; Purcell 1963; Rodzinski, 1979, 349-404; Rummel 1991; Scalapino and Yu, 1985, 155-308; Sladkovsky, 1975, 57-76; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1925 (supplement), 39-52, 1926, 518-521; Tan 1955; T’ang, 1930/1975, 61-120; Thornton 1973.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Botjer, George F. 1979. A Short History of Nationalist China, 1919-1949. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.

Christopher, James William. 1950. Conflict in the Far East: American Diplomacy in China from 1928-1933. Leiden,
Netherlands: E. J. Brill.

Clubb, O. Edmund. 1978. 20th Century China, 3d edition. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gray, Jack. 1990. Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1800s to the 1980s. London: Oxford University Press.

Liu, F. F. 1956. A Military History of Modern China, 1924-1949. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Pott, F. L. Hawks. 1925. “China in Chaos.” Current History 21 (January): 492-502.

Rodzinski, Witold. 1979. A History of China. Volume I. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press.

Rummel, R. J. 1991. China’s Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900. New Brunswick and London:
Transaction Publishers.

Scalapino, Robert A. and George T. Yu. 1985. Modern China and its Revolutionary Process: Recurrent Challenges to the
Traditional Order, 1850-1920. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Sladkovsky, M. I. 1975. China & Japan: Past and Present. Academic International Press.

Thornton, Richard C. 1973. China, the Struggle for Power 1917-1972. Bloomington, IN and London: Indiana University
Press.

Tsou, Tang. 1962. “Civil Strife and Armed Intervention: Marshall’s China Policy.” Orbis 6 (Spring): 76-101.