6. Afghanistan (1919-present)

 

Crisis Phase (February 20, 1919-November 11, 1928):  Emir Habibullah Khan was assassinated by a military officer in Lanhman Province on February 20, 1919.  Emir Habibullah Khan's son, Nasrullah Khan, declared himself Emir on February 21, 1919.  Another son of Emir Habibullah Khan, Amanullah Khan, seized control of the government in Kabul, and he declared himself Emir on February 28, 1919.  Nasrullah Khan was arrested and imprisoned on March 3, 1919.  Afghan and British military forces engaged in military hostilities from May 3 to August 8, 1919, resulting in the deaths of some 2,000 individuals.  Through the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi (or Anglo-Afghan Treaty) on August 8, 1919, Britain formally recognized the sovereignty and independence of Afghanistan.  Mangal tribesmen led by Abdullah Khan rebelled against the government in the Khost region beginning in March 1924.  Abdullah Khan and  his followers was captured by government troops led by Muhammad Wali Khan on January 30, 1925.  Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the rebellion.  Fifty-three rebels were sentenced to death for their involvement in the rebellion in May 1925.  Government troops suppressed demonstrations against the government in Kabul on October 2, 1928.  More than 4,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (November 12, 1928 - October 12, 1929): Shinwari tribesmen led by Bacha-i-Saqao ("Son of a Water Carrier") rebelled against the government of King Amanullah Khan in the Eastern Province beginning on November 12, 1928. Rebels attacked Kabul and captured the fort of Bagh-i Bala on December 14, 1928.  King Amanullah Khan abdicated in favor of his brother, Inayatullah Khan, and fled to British India on January 14, 1929.  King Inayatullah Khan abdicated the throne on January 17, 1929.  Rebel troops captured Kabul, and Bacha Sakau proclaimed himself Emir Habibullah Ghazi ("Habibullah the Victor") on January 17, 1929.  Former King Amanullah Khan fled to Chaman, India on May 23, 1929.  Emir Habibullah Ghazi survived an assassination attempt on May 26, 1929, resulting in the death of one individual.  Emir Habibullah Ghazi’s troops defeated troops led by Ali Ahmad Khan Barakzai on June 3, 1929.  Waziri tribesmen led by General Sardar Mohammed Nadir Khan captured Gardez from government troops on August 29, 1929.  Some 12,000 Waziri tribesmen led by General Sardar Nadir Khan launched a military offensive against Emir Habibullah Ghazi’s troops on September 18, 1929. General Nadir Khan’s tribesmen defeated Emir Habibollah Ghazi’s troops at Charasiah on October 5-6, 1929.  General Nadir Khan’s troops captured Kabul on October 12, 1929. Some 8,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 13, 1929-November 9, 1933):  General Nadir Khan proclaimed himself King Mohammed Nadir Shah on October 15, 1929.  Bacha-i-Saqao and ten of his supporters were captured and executed on November 3, 1929.  Mohammad Hashim Khan was appointed by the King Mohammed Nadir Shah as prime minister on November 14, 1929.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion by Shinwari tribesmen in July 1930, and eleven individuals were executed for their involvement in the rebellion. A new constitution went into effect in February 1932, providing for a bicameral parliament (National Assembly) and a council of state.  King Nadir Shah was assassinated by Abdul Khaliq Hazara on November 8, 1933, and he was succeeded by his son, Mohammed Zahir Shah, on November 9, 1933.  Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between October 1929 and November 1933.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 10, 1933-July 16, 1973):  Mohammad Hashim Khan was replaced as prime minister by Shah Mahmud Khan on May 9, 1946.  Legislative elections were held in 1949.  Legislative elections for the 171-seat National Assembly were held in February and April 1952.  Mohammad Hashim Khan was replaced as prime minister by Mohammed Daoud Khan on September 7, 1953.  Mohammed Daoud Khan resigned on March 9, 1963, and Mohammad Yusuf was appointed as prime minister on March 10, 1963.  A new constitution, providing for a constitutional monarchy and a bicameral parliament, went into effect on October 1, 1964.  The People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was established on January 1, 1965.  Legislative elections were held for the 216-seat National Assembly in September 1965. Three individuals were killed during demonstrations in Kabul on October 25, 1965.  Prime Minister Mohammad Yusuf resigned on October 29, 1965, and King Mohammed Zahir Shah appointed Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal as prime minister on November 2, 1965.  The PDPA split into the Khalq faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and the Parcham faction headed by Babrak Karmal in 1967.  Legislative elections were held for the 216-seat National Assembly between August 29 and September 11, 1969, and Nur Ahmed Etemadi formed a government as prime minister on November 21, 1969.

Crisis Phase (July 17, 1973-July 29, 1978): The government of King Mohammed Zahir Shah was overthrown in a rebellion led by Lt. General Sardar Muhammad Daud Khan on July 17, 1973. Eight individuals were killed during the military rebellion. Lt. General Daud Khan proclaimed the Republic of Afghanistan, and was elected president on July 19, 1973. The governments of India and the Soviet Union provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on July 19, 1973.  President Daud Khan dissolved the parliament on July 28, 1973.  The government suppressed a military rebellion against President Daud Khan on September 20, 1973.  President Daud Khan was killed during a rebellion on April 27-28, 1978, which resulted in the deaths of some 3,000 individuals. The Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) headed by Colonel Abdul Qadir took control of the government on April 27, 1978. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence on April 27-28, 1978.  The AFRC appointed Nur Muhammad Taraki, secretary general of the PDPA, as prime minister of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan on April 30, 1978.  The government of the Soviet Union provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Prime Minister Taraki on April 30, 1978.  The government of Pakistan provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Prime Minister Taraki on May 5, 1978, and the Chinese government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Prime Minister Taraki on May 8, 1978. Some 5,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (July 30, 1978-April 14, 1988): The Mujaheddin (Islamic Holy Warriors) led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Maulavi Mohammad Yunus Khales rebelled against the government of Prime Minister Taraki beginning on July 30, 1978.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Herat in March and April 1979, resulting in the deaths of some 5,000 individuals.  Some 640 individuals were killed by government troops in the village of Carole on April 20, 1979. Some 100 individuals were killed in anti-government demonstrations in Kabul on June 23-24, 1979.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion on August 5-6, 1979.  Prime Minister Taraki was killed during a rebellion led by Foreign Minister Hafizollah Amin on September 16, 1979.  Some 380,000 Afghans fled as refugees to Pakistan between April 27 and December 15, 1979.  President Hafizollah Amin was killed during a rebellion on December 27, 1979.  Babrak Kamal of the Parcham faction of the PDPA was installed as president, prime minister, and chairman of the AFRC on December 28, 1979.  Some 50,000 Soviet troops intervened in support of the government of President Kamal beginning on December 28, 1979.  The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government in January 1980.  The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) provided military assistance to the Mujaheddin rebels beginning in January 1980.  Six Afghan rebel groups formed the Islamic Alliance for the Liberation of Afghanistan (IALA) in Islamabad, Pakistan on January 27, 1980, and Ghulam Abdur Rasoul Sayaf was selected as head of the IALA on March 19, 1980.  The OIC established a three-member conciliation commission in May 1980.  Some 600,000 individuals fled as refugees to Iran and Pakistan in 1980. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF), and the International Rescue Committee (IRC) established missions to provide humanitarian assistance to Afghan refugees in Pakistan beginning in 1980.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to internally-displaced individuals in Afghanistan beginning in 1980 (the mission consisted of some 67 international staff and 1,000 local staff in June 1999).  The UN secretary-general appointed Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru as his personal representative to Afghanistan on February 11, 1981.  President Karmal appointed Soltan Ali Keshtmand as prime minister on June 11, 1981.  Iran offered to mediate negotiations between the parties on November 10, 1981, but the mediation offer was rejected by the government and rebels on November 15, 1981.  Javier Perez de Cuellar resigned as UN personal representative to Afghanistan on December 31, 1981.  On January 7, 1982, Amnesty International (AI) appealed to the government and rebels to end the killing of prisoners. UN Secretary-General Javier Perze de Cuellar appointed Diego Cordovez of Ecuador as personal representative to Afghanistan on February 23, 1982.  The U.S. Congress voted in November 1985 to provide $200 million for the Mujaheddin rebels ($280 million had already been provided to the rebels).  Major General Sayid Mohammad Najibullah was appointed as general secretary of the PDPA on May 4, 1986.  President Najibullah declared a ceasefire on December 30, 1986, but the ceasefire was rejected by the Mujaheddin on January 17, 1987.  The Soviet Union, US, Afghanistan, and Pakistan signed four UN-mediated accords in Geneva, Switzerland on April 14, 1988, which provided for the return of refugees to Afghanistan and the withdrawal of Soviet troops.  Some 700,000 individuals were killed, and some 5.9 million individuals fled as refugees to Iran and Pakistan during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 15, 1988-August 31, 1994): The UNHCR established a mission to provide repatriation assistance to Afghan refugees in Iran and Pakistan beginning in 1988.  The UNHCR assisted in the repatriation of some three million Afghan refugees from Pakistan and Iran between 1988 and December 1998.  The Soviet Union began their troop withdrawal on May 15, 1988.  The UN Secretary-General established the United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) to monitor the non-interference and non-intervention by the parties, to monitor the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, and to monitor the voluntary return of refugees beginning on May 16, 1988.  UNGOMAP consisted of 50 military observers from ten countries commanded by Major-General Rauli Helminen of Finland.  Soviet troops completed their withdrawal from Afghanistan on February 15, 1989.  Some 13,300 Soviet soldiers were killed during the intervention.  President Najibullah declared a state-of-emergency on February 19, 1989.  UNGOMAP was disbanded on March 15, 1990.  The government of President Najibullah continued the war against Mujaheddin rebels following the withdrawal of Soviet troops.  The government lifted the state-of-emergency on May 28, 1990.  The UN secretary-general established the Office of the Secretary-General in Afghanistan and Pakistan (OSGAP) on October 17, 1990.  A government missile attack against the Mujaheddin-held city of Asadabad on April 19, 1991 resulted in the deaths of 300 individuals.  President Najibullah was removed from power by the Mujaheddin on April 15, 1992, and the Islamic Jihad Council (IJC) took control of the government in Kabul on April 28, 1992.  Burhanuddin Rabbani of the Jamiat-i-Islami (JI) was sworn in as president on June 28, 1992.  Some 1.4 million Afghan refugees returned to the country in 1992.  Burhannudin Rabbani was inaugurated as interim president on January 2, 1993.  Pakistan mediated a peace agreement among eight rival factions in Islamabad, Pakistan on March 7, 1993.  The US provided de-mining assistance to the government beginning on October 1, 1993.  On December 21, 1993, the UN General Assembly approved a resolution requesting that the UN secretary-general establish the United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan (UNSMA) to "to facilitate national reconciliation and reconstruction in Afghanistan."  UNSMA consisted of some 29 international civilian personnel and one military advisor.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Mahmoud Mestiri of Tunisia as Special Envoy to Afghanistan on February 12, 1994.  The OIC established a four-member mediation commission in July 1994.  Some 50,000 individuals were killed and some 100,000 individuals were displaced as a result of political violence between April 1988 and August 1994.

Conflict Phase (September 1, 1994-December 9, 2001): The Taliban Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (TIMA) was established by Mullah Mohammad Omar in Kandahar Province in September 1994.  The Taliban movement consisted primarily of ethnic-Pashtuns from Kandahar Province.  On March 3, 1995, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reported that the civil war had caused one million deaths, six million refugees, and two million internally-displaced individuals since 1979.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appealed for a ceasefire on March 8, 1995.  The OIC mediation commission met with President Rabbani in Kabul on July 22-23, 1995.  The European Union (EU) appealed for a ceasefire on March 14, 1996.  Mahmoud Mestiri resigned as UN Special Envoy to Afghanistan on May 28, 1996.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Norbert Holl of Germany as Head of UNSMA on July 1, 1996.  Supporters of the Taliban captured Jalalabad on September 11, 1996, and captured Kabul on September 27, 1996.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on October 22, 1996.  The European Union (EU) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Taliban government and opposition groups on December 16, 1996.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Lakhdar Brahimi of Algeria as UN special envoy to Afghanistan beginning on July 29, 1997.  Iran condemned the Taliban government for military attacks against Afghan opposition capital Mazar-i-Sharif, and appealed for peaceful negotiations in October 1997.  The Taliban government changed the name of the country to the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in October 1997.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on December 16, 1997.  Norbert Holl resigned as head of UNSMA on December 29, 1997.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on April 6, 1998.  Lt. Colonel Carmine Calo, a military advisor to UNSMA, was killed in Kabul on August 21, 1998.  The governments of the U.S., Russia, China, Pakistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan jointly appealed for a ceasefire on September 21, 1998.  The UN Security Council demanded a ceasefire on December 8, 1998.  Some 500,000 Afghans were internally displaced in 1998.  Some 2.6 million Afghans were refugees in neighboring countries, including 1.4 million refugees in Iran and 1.2 million refugees in Pakistan.  The ICRC assisted with the repatriation of prisoners-of-war between January 15 and April 14, 1999.  One staff personnel of the ICRC was killed in Jabul Saraj on April 26, 1999.  The European Union (EU) appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on August 10, 1999.  The UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and frozen assets) against the Taliban beginning on October 15, 1999.  On October 22, 1999, the UN Security Council condemned the Taliban government for its recent military offensive against rebels.  Lakhdar Brahimi resigned as UN special envoy to Afghanistan on October 31, 1999.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Francesc Vendrell of Spain as Special Representative in Afghanistan on January 17, 2000.  Taliban government military aircraft bombed opposition targets in Panjshir valley on February 14, 2000, resulting in the deaths of eight civilians.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the Taliban government for the bombing in the Panjshir valley.  The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) facilitated negotiations between the parties in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on March 7, 2000.  The International Organization for Migration (IOM) and UNHCR assisted with the repatriation of 17,086 Afghan refugees from Iran between April 9 and May 18, 2000.  China appealed for peaceful negotiations on July 4, 2000.  The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Taliban government on December 19, 2000.  Amnesty International condemned the Taliban for human rights abuses on January 23, 2001.  The European Union (EU) lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against opposition groups in Afghanistan on February 26, 2001 (EU military sanctions remained in effect for the Taliban government).   UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Lakhdar Brahimi of Algeria as UN Special Representative in Afghanistan on October 3, 2001.  British and US military aircraft began a bombing campaign against Taliban military targets on October 7, 2001 (following terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001).  Japanese military aircraft delivered humanitarian assistance to refugees in Pakistan beginning on October 9, 2001.  Northern Alliance (NA) rebels captured Kabul on November 13, 2001, and captured Kunduz in northern Afghanistan on November 26, 2001.  The UN facilitated negotiations between four Afghan factions in Bonn, Germany beginning on November 27, 2001, and the factions agreed on a provisional government on December 5, 2001.  Taliban leader, Mullah Mohammed Omar, surrendered Kandahar to opposition military forces on December 9, 2001.  Some 250,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 10, 2001-January 26, 2003):  Klaus Peter Klaiber was appointed as EU Special Representative on December 10, 2001.  On December 20, 2001, the UN Security authorized the establishment of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to provide security in Kabul, Afghanistan.  ISAF, which consisted of some 5,882 troops from 32 countries commanded by Major General John McColl of Britain, was deployed in the capital city of Kabul.  ISAF peacekeepers consisted of 1,800 British soldiers, 1,250 German/Dutch/Danish soldiers, 1,000 Turkish soldiers, 550 French soldiers, 350 Italian soldiers, 124 Greek soldiers, 60 Austrian soldiers, 50 Finish soldiers, 50 Norwegian troops, 50 Romanian soldiers, 45 Swedish soldiers, 30 Albanian soldiers, 25 New Zealand soldiers, and 20 Bulgarian soldiers.  Hamid Karzai was sworn in as chairman of an interim government on December 22, 2001. Australia, Canada, EU, Germany, Iran, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and US provided humanitarian assistance to Afghan refugees and internally-displaced persons (IDPs) and economic (reconstruction) assistance to the Afghan government beginning in December 2001.  The governments of Bangladesh, Britain, China, Germany, Iran, Italy, Turkey, and the US provided military advice and training to the government beginning in 2002.  President George W. Bush of the U.S. appointed Zalmay Khalilzad as US Special Envoy to Aghanistan on January 1, 2002.  The UN Security Council lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government of Afghanistan, but imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Taliban and al-Qaeda opposition in Afghanistan on January 16, 2002.  The UNHCR provided repatriation assistance to Afghan refugees beginning on March 1, 2002.  Eight US soldiers were killed during an operation in eastern Afghanistan on March 4, 2002.  Five ISAF peacekeepers were accidentally killed in an explosion in Kabul on March 6, 2002.  UNSMA was disbanded on March 28, 2002.  On March 28, 2002, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan established the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) to create political legitimacy through democratization; maintain peace and stability through negotiation of dispute with the help of the UN Secretary-General's good offices; monitor and report on human rights abuses; advise on the development of institutions and assist in coordinating external support for the reconstruction process; and manage all UN humanitarian relief, recovery, and reconstruction in coordination with the Afghan government."  UNAMA consisted of some 300 personnel headed by UN Special Representative Lakhdar Brahimi of Algeria.  The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance to the interim government beginning in April 2002.  The European Union (EU) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Taliban opposition in Afghanistan on May 27, 2002.  Hamid Karzai was elected president of the interim government by the grand council (loya jirga) on June 13, 2002, and he was sworn in as president on June 19, 2002. The European Union (EU) appointed Francesc Vendrell of Spain as EU Special Representative in Afghanistan beginning on July 1, 2002.  Vice-President Haji Abdul Qadir was assassinated in Kabul on July 6, 2002.  Twelve Afghans were killed in political violence in Herat province on July 23, 2002. U.S. troops killed four Afghans near Asadabad in Konar province on August 7, 2002.  Fifteen individuals, including two government policemen, were killed in political violence in Binizar on August 7, 2002.

Conflict Phase (January 27, 2003-present):  Taliban militants launched an insurgency against the government and ISAF military forces beginning on January 27, 2002.  U.S. military forces killed 18 Islamic militants on January 27, 2003.  Some 38 civilians and 26 Pashtun soldiers were killed in political violence in Badgis province in March 2003.  Taliban insurgents killed nine government policemen in eastern Afghanistan on August 19, 2003.  NATO took control of the International Security Assistance Force-(ISAF) on August 11, 2003.  At maximum strength, NATO-ISAF consisted of nearly 150,000 military personnel (including some 100,000 US troops and 9,500 British troops) from 50 NATO and non-NATO countries.  Taliban insurgents killed five government soldiers in Kandahar province on September 7, 2003.  U.S. troops launched a military offensive (Operation Avalanche) against Taliban insurgents on December 8, 2003.  Hamid Karzai was elected president with 55 percent of the vote on October 9, 2004.  The European Union (EU) provided electoral assistance (nine election experts and 16 field experts) to the government from August 14 to November 1, 2004.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 13 individuals to monitor the presidential election.  Hamid Karzai was inaugurated as president on December 7, 2004.  Lakhdar Brahimi resigned as UN Special Representative in Afghanistan on January 6, 2004.  On February 11, 2004, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced the appointment of Jean Annault of France as UN Special Representative and Head of UNAMA in Afghanistan.  Legislative and provincial council elections were held on September 18, 2005, and supporters of several former Afghan warlords won a majority of the 249 seats in the House of the People.  The European Union (EU) sent 12 election experts, 60 long-term observers, and 24 short-term observers headed by Emma Bonino of Italy to monitor the elections from July 26 to October 31, 2005.  Taliban insurgents killed seven government policemen in Kandahar province on November 9, 2005.  Afghanistan's parliament convened in Kabul on December 19, 2005.  On December 27, 2005, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced the appointment of Tom Koenigs of Germany as UN Special Representative and Head of UNAMA in Afganistan.  Taliban insurgents killed some 24 individuals in Kandahar Province on January 16, 2006.  Taliban insurgents killed six government policemen in Maiwand District on April 21, 2006.  NATO troops from Australia and the Netherlands launched a military offensive against Taliban insurgents in Chora District and the Balochistan region from April to July 2006, resulting in the deaths of one Dutch soldier and more than 300 insurgents.  NATO and Afghan government troops launched a military offensive (Operation Mountain Thrust) against Taliban insurgents in southern Afghanistan from May 15 to July 31, 2006, resulting in the deaths of 24 U.S. soldiers, four Canadian soldiers, 107 Afghan government soldiers, and 1,134 insurgents.  Three British soldiers were killed by Taliban insurgents in Helmand province on August 1, 2006.  NATO and Afghan government troops clashed with Taliban insurgents in Panjwaii District from July to October 2006, resulting in the deaths of 16 Canadian soldiers, two U.S. soldiers, and more than 1,000 insurgents.  NATO and Afghan government troops launched a military offensive (Operation Medusa) against Taliban insurgents in Kandahar Province from September 2 to September 17, 2006, resulting in the deaths of 12 Canadian soldiers, 14 British soldiers, one Dutch soldiers, one U.S. soldier, and 512 insurgents. NATO and Afghan government troops launched a military offensive (Operation Mountain Fury) against Taliban insurgents in eastern Afghanistan from September 16, 2006 to January 15, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 26 NATO soldiers, 14 Afghan government soldiers, 35 government police, 144 civilians, and 934 insurgents.  U.S. military personnel killed at least 12 Afghan civilians in Nangarhar Province on March 4, 2007.  NATO and Afghan government troops launched a military offensive (Operation Archilles) against Taliban insurgents in Helmand Province from March 6 to May 30, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 19 Afghan government soldiers, six British soldiers, six Canadian soldiers, two U.S. soldiers, one Danish soldiers, one Dutch soldier, and more than 300 insurgents.  NATO and Afghan government troops launched a military offensive (Operation Lastay Kulang) against Taliban insurgents in Helmand Province from May 30 to June 14, 2007, resulting in the deaths of three British soldiers, one Canadian soldier, seven U.S. soldiers, and more than 150 insurgents.  The European Union (EU) established the EU Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL) on June 15, 2007.  At its maximum strength, EUPOL consisted of some 360 international staff members from some 27 countries commanded initially by Brigadier-General Friedrich Eichele of Germany.  NATO and Afghan government soldiers clashed with Taliban insurgents in Oruzgan Province on June 15-19, 2007, resulting in the deaths of two Dutch soldiers, one U.S. soldier, one Australia soldier, 16 Afghan government policemen, and 71 insurgents.  Taliban insurgents killed at least 30 government soldiers in a bus attack in Kabul on September 29, 2007.  Brigadier-General Jürgen Scholz of Germany took over as Head of EUPOL-Afghanistan on November 1, 2007.  Taliban insurgents killed some 70 civilians in Baghlan Province on November 6, 2007.  Taliban insurgents killed 16 government policemen in the city of Kandahar on December 29, 2007.  More than 100 individuals, including 36 government policemen, were killed in a suicide bombing north of the city of Kandahar on February 17, 2008.  Some 36 civilians were killed in a car bombing in the town of Spin Boldak in Kandahar Province on February 18, 2008.  On March 10, 2008, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the appointment of Kai Eide of Norway as UN Special Representative and Head of UNAMA in Afghanistan.  Taliban insurgents attacked NATO troops near the village of Wanat in Nuristan Province on July 13, 2008, resulting in the deaths of nine U.S. soldiers and at least 21 Taliban insurgents.  Taligan insurgents ambushed NATO troops near the village of Sper Kunday in Kabul Province on August 18, 2008, resulting in the deaths of ten French soldiers and at least ten insurgents.  NATO and Afghan government troops launched a military offensive (Operation Eagle's Summit) against Taliban insurgents in Kandahar and Helmand provinces from August 27 to September 5, 2008, resulting in the deaths of one Canadian soldier and some 200 insurgents.  Police Commissioner Kai Vittrup of Denmark took over as Head of EUPOL-Afghanistan on October 16, 2008.  NATO and Afghan government troops launched a military offensive (Operation Panther's Claw) against Taliban insurgents in Helmand Province from June 19 to August 20, 2009, resulting in the deaths of ten British soldiers, 12 Afghan government soldiers, four Afghan government policemen, and more than 200 insurgents. NATO and Afghan government troops launched a military offensive (Operation Strike of the Sword) against Taliban insurgents in Helmand Province from July 2 to August 20, 2009, resulting in the deaths of two Afghan government soldiers and at least 49 insurgents.  U.S. military aircraft attacked two fuel tankers captured by Taliban insurgents in Kunduz Province, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 individuals.  Presidential and provincial council elections were held on August 20, 2009.  Hamid Karzai was re-elected to a second five-year term as president with just under 50 percent of the vote in the first round of presidential elections held on August 20, 2009.  At least 26 individuals, including eight government soldiers, nine government police officers, and nine civilians were killed in election-day violence.  The run-off election, which was scheduled for November 7, 2009, was cancelled after Abdullah Abdullah of the United National Front (UNF) dropped out of the election.  The European Union (EU) sent 36 long-term observers and 84 short-term observers from 25 countries led by Phillippe Morillon of France to monitor the presidential and provincial council elections from July 2 to November 6, 2009.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 27 long-term observers and 112 short-term observers to monitor the presidential and provincial council elections.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent four long-term observers and 30 short-term observers to monitor the presidential and provincial council elections.  Taliban insurgents launched attacks on government buildings in Kabul on January 18, 2010, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers, two civilians, and at least seven insurgents.  On January 28, 2010, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the appointment of Staffan de Mistura of Sweden as UN Special Representative and Head of UNAMA in Afghanistan.  Staffan de Mistura took over as UN Special Representative and Head of UNAMA on March 1, 2010.  Brigadier General Jukka Savolainen of Finland took over as Head of EUPOL-Afghanistan on July 15, 2010. Legislative elections were held on September 18, 2010, and independents won 249 out of 249 seats in the House of the People (Wolesi Jirga).  Fourteen individuals were killed in election-day violence.  Democracy International (DI) sent 16 election experts, 18 long-term observers, and 46 short-terms observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 164 observers from 13 countries to monitor the legislative elections  from August 1 to September 20, 2010.  Afghan government police clashed with Taliban insurgents in Kandahar on May 7-9, 2011, resulting in the deaths of 12 Afghan government policemen and 25 insurgents.  On November 23, 2011, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the appointment of Ján Kubiš of Slovakia as UN Special Representative and Head of UNAMA in Afghanistan.  Ján Kubiš formally took over as UN Special Representative and Head of UNAMA on January 1, 2012.  Karl Åke Roghe of Sweden took over as Head of EUPOL-Afghanistan on August 1, 2012.  Taliban suicide bombers killed four Afghan government soldiers and two civilians in an attack on a NATO airbase in Jalalabad on December 2, 2012.  Taliban suicide bombers killed three U.S. soldiers and two civilians in an attack on a NATO airbase near Kandahar on December 13, 2012.  More than 50,000 individuals, including some 18,000 civilians, 3,400 NATO-ISAF peacekeepers, and 10,000 Afghan security forces, have been killed during the conflict.

[Sources:  Amnesty International press release, January 23, 2001; Associated Press (AP), September 22, 1998, March 26, 2003, June 10, 2003, August 11, 2003, September 8, 2003; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), January 19, 2001, November 26, 2001, January 1, 2002, March 5, 2002, August 11, 2003, October 11, 2005, November 10, 2005, December 7, 2005, April 21, 2006, November 13, 2006, April 15, 2007, February 18, 2008, July 14, 2008, July 2, 2009, July 4, 2009, July 8, 2009, December 18, 2009, January 18, 2010, September 18, 2010, May 9, 2011, May 17, 2012, December 2, 2012, December 13, 2012; Cable News Network (CNN), January 31, 2002; Clodfelter, 1992, 630, 1105-1109; European Union (EU) press release, March 14, 1996, December 17, 1996, August 10, 1999, May 23, 2005, June 15, 2007, September 25, 2008, October 3, 2008, May 18, 2010, July 10, 2012; Facts on File, July 15-21, 1973, August 5-11, 1973, May 5, 1978, May 12, 1978, July 13, 1979, August 10, 1979, September 21, 1979, October 11, 2001; International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) press release, April 30, 1997, January 22, 1999, February 17, 1999, April 14, 1999, April 27, 1999; International Organization for Migration (IOM) press release, May 16, 2000, May 19, 2000; Jessup, 1998, 7-8; Keesing's Record of World Events, December 6-13, 1969, August 6-12, 1973, November 26-December 2, 1973, June 23, 1978, January 11, 1980, May 9, 1980, July 18, 1980, May 22, 1981, October 23, 1981, June 18, 1982, February 1989, April 1992, June 1992, March 1993, July 1995; Langer, 1972, 1099-1100; New York Times (NYT), June 13, 2002, June 14, 2002, October 24, 2004, December 8, 2004, December 19, 2005, February 19, 2008, August 23, 2009, January 19, 2010; Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) press release, March 7, 2000, September 13, 2000; Radio Free Europe (RFE)/Radio Liberty (RL), December 5, 2001, December 6, 2001, July 8, 2002; Reuters, January 31, 2000, February 17, 2000, July 4, 2000, March 6, 2002, June 19, 2002, July 6, 2002, July 23, 2002, August 5, 2002, August 7, 2002, February 25, 2003, April 27, 2003, May 5, 2003, May 15, 2003, June 12, 2003, July 15, 2003, August 13, 2003, August 17, 2003, August 19, 2003, September 25, 2004, July 11, 2009, January 18, 2010; Schmid, 1985, 127-132; SIPRI Yearbook, 1985, 577-610; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1928, 444, 1929, 493; The Guardian, November 12, 2001, November 13, 2001; Tillema, 1991, 204-205; UN Chronicle, September 1994, June 1995, June 1988; United Nations (UN) press release, November 27, 2001, February 11, 2004, December 27, 2005, March 10, 2008, January 28, 2010, November 23, 2011; United Nations Security Council (UNSC) press release, December 16, 1997, April 6, 1998, October 22, 1999.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Adamec, Ludwig W. 1974. Afghanistan’s Foreign Affairs to the Mid-Twentieth Century: Relations With the USSR, Germany, and Britain. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Bhasin, V. K. 1984. Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan: Its Background and Implications. New Delhi, India: S. Chand &
Company, Ltd.

Gregorian, Vartan. 1969. The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization, 1880-1946.
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Poullada, Leon B. 1973. Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan, 1919-1929. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University
Press.

Sykes, Percy. 1975. A History of Afghanistan. Volume II. New York: AMS Press.

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